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War-Time Industrial Employment of Women in the United States

A. B. Wolfe and Helen Olson
Journal of Political Economy
Vol. 27, No. 8 (Oct., 1919), pp. 639-669
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1821903
Page Count: 31
Subjects: Economics Business
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Notes and References

This item contains 58 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Abstract of the Census of Manufactures, I (1914), 433
  • 2
    Ibid., p. 463
  • 3
    The Wage Earning Women in the Winning of the War, Bulletin for the Press, issued April 14, 1918, by the Committee on Public Information
  • 1
    Hobbs, "Wartime Employment of Women," American Labor Legislation Review, December, 1918, pp. 334-35.
  • 1
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Council of National Defense, Committee on Women in Industry, Women Workers in the Philadelphia Naval Aircraft Factory, p. 24.
    • National Industrial Confer- ence Board, Wartime Employment of Women in the Metal Trades, 1918, pp. 70-72.
  • 2
    Turner, "Women in Mechanical Trades in the United States," Monthly Labor Review, September, 1918, p. 211
  • 3
    Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, Substitution of Woman for Man Power in Industry, 1918, p. 17
  • 1
    Porter, "Detroit's Plan for Recruiting Women for Industries," Industrial Management, August, 1917, pp. 655-59
  • 2
    In October, 1918, the Employment Service placed 66,ooo women. U.S. Employ- ment Service Bulletin, December 10, 1918, p. 10
  • 3
    General Order B-7 and B-8. The full text is given in the U.S. Employment Service Bulletin, September 17, 1918, p. 314
  • 1
    For a comprehensive list of machines operated successfully by women see Lynch, "Women's Work in the Iron, Steel, and Metal Industries," Iron Trade Review, January 17, 1918, p. 206
  • 2
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Monthly Labor Review, March, 1919, pp. 209-12
    • National Industrial Conference Board, op. cit., pp. 1-3, 8-29
    • Turner, "Women in Mechanical Trades in the United States," Monthly Labor Review, September, 1918, pp. 206-15
    • Goldmark, "Women in the Railroad Service," Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York, February, 1919, pp. 151-56
    • Council of National Defense, op. cit., October, 1918, pp. 26-36
  • 1
    National Industrial Conference Board, op. cit., p. 37.
  • 1
    Monthly Labor Review, September, 1918, p. 217.
  • 2
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • "Peace Time Standards for Women in Industry," U.S. Employment Service Bulletin, December 17, 1918, p. 4.
    • Factory Equipment, Housekeeping, and Supervision, a handbook for employers of women, September, 1918, p. 7.
  • 3
    Report of the Chief Inspector of Factories for 1916, Cd. 8570 (1917), p. 5.
  • 1
    Mosher and Martin, "The Muscular Strength of College Women," Journal of the American Medical Association, January 19, 1918, pp. 140-42.
  • 2
    National Industrial Conference Board, Wartime Employment of Women in the Metal Trades, pp. 35, 36.
  • 1
    Commerce Reports, March 27, 1919, p. 1549.
  • 2
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Industry and Finance, 1917, p. 41.
    • National Industrial Conference Board, Wartime Employment of Women in the Metal Industries (July, 1918).
    • New York State Department of Labor, The Industrial Replacement of Men by Women, March, 1919.
  • 3
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Wartime Employment of Women in the Metal Trades, p. 45.
    • Industrial Replacement of Men by Women, p. 18.
  • 1
    Burdick, "Training of Girls and Women for Emergency War Work," Vocational Summary, August, 1918, p. 9.
  • 1
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • N.Y. State Industrial Commission, op. cit., p. 20.
    • Turner, "Women in the Mechanical Trades in the United States," Monthly Labor Review, September, 1918, pp. 206-13
    • National Industrial Conference Board, op. cit., pp. 45-47
    • Council of National Defense, op. cit., pp. 37-39
    • Burdick, "Training of Girls and Women for Emergency War Work," Vocational Summary, August, 1918.
  • 2
    Second Annual Report of the Council of National Defense, 1918, p. 86
  • 1
    Marshall, "The War-Labor Program and Its Administration," Journal of Political Economy, May, 1918
  • 2
    National Indus- trial Conference Board, Rest Periods for Industrial Workers (Research Report No. 13, January, 1919), pp. 7-9
  • 1
    National Industrial Conference Board, Wartime Employ- ment of Women in the Metal Trades, pp. 62, 64
  • 2
    Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor, 1918, pp. 120, 121
  • 1
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Munitions Ministry Circular No. 9, January 31, 1916
    • British Industrial Experience during the War, I, 483-84
    • 65th Congress, Senate Document No. 114
    • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin No. 222, p. 27
  • 2
    Monkhouse, "The Employment of Women in Munitions Factories," Scien- tific American, Supplement, May 4, 1918, p. 282
  • 1
    Detroit's Plan for Recruiting Women for Industries," Industrial Management, August, 1917
  • 2
    National Industrial Conference Board, Wartime Employment of Women in the Metal Trades, pp. 42, 43
  • 3
    Mary Van Kleeck, Mary Anderson, Pauline Goldmark, Marguerite Bourat, and Helen Frazer, in Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York, February, 1919, pp. 141 ff
  • 1
    The Industrial Replacement of Men by Women in the State of New York, pp. 22, 23
  • 2
    Monthly Labor Review, March, 1919, p. 212
  • 3
    Monthly Labor Review, March, 1919, pp. 212-14
  • 1
    Harris and Swartz, The Cost of Clean Clothes in Terms of Health, a Study of Laundries and Laundry-workers in New York City, under the auspices of the Bureau of Preventable Disease of the Department of Health and the Consumers' League of New York City, pp. 28, 29
  • 2
    Mann, Women Workers in Factories (Consumers' League of Cincinnati, August, 1918), p. 17
  • 3
    Monthly Labor Review, April, 1919, pp. 174-75
  • 4
    Council of National Defense, Women Workers in the Philadelphia Naval Aircraft Factory, p. 43. The figures are for July, 1918
  • 5
    Council of National Defense, Making Uniforms for the Navy, September, 1918, pp. 41-43
  • 1
    National Industrial Conference Board, op. cit., pp. 8-29
  • 2
    Mann, Women Workers in Factories, p. 16
  • 3
    New York State Industrial Commission, The Industrial Replacement of Men by Women, p. 23
  • 4
    Ibid., pp. 28, 29
  • 5
    Woman's Occupational Bureau, War-time Replacement in the City of Minneapolis, April, 1919, pp. 12-14
  • 1
    Standards Governing Employment of Women in Industry, p. 4
  • 2
    Monthly Labor Review, November, 1918, p. 183
  • 1
    John A. Fitch, "The War Labor Board," Survey, May 3, 1919, pp. 192-95
  • 2
    Federal Policy in the Employment of Women," Monthly Labor Review, November, 1918, p. 185
  • 3
    Monthly Labor Review, January, 1919, p. 31
  • 2
    Goldmark, "Women in the Railroad Service," Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York, February, 1919, p. 18
  • 3
    Annual Report of the Director General, preliminary edition of chapter on labor, 1919, p. 1O
  • 1
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Monthly Labor Review, January, 1919, pp. 224-30
    • May, 1919, pp. 230-32.
  • 2
    Survey, March 1, 1919, p. 801
  • 3
    Secretary of Labor, Sixth Annual Report, 1918, p. 18
  • 4
    Withington, "The Telephone Strike," Survey, April 26, 1919, p. 146
  • 1
    Mary E. Drier, in Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York, February, 1919, p. 6