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Climatic Change and Agricultural Exhaustion as Elements in the Fall of Rome

Ellsworth Huntington
The Quarterly Journal of Economics
Vol. 31, No. 2 (Feb., 1917), pp. 173-208
Published by: Oxford University Press
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Page Count: 36
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I. Decline in Roman agriculture, 173.--Contrasted views, 175.--Lie big and Simkhovitch on exhaustion of soil, 176.--Conrad on climatic change, 177.--II. Four climatic hypotheses: (1) Uniformity, 178.--Geological view, 178.--Historical view, 179.--Ancient famines, 180.--Water works, 181.--Cyrene, 181.--Ilandarin, 182.--Ancient vegetation and crops, 183.--(2) Local changes and deforestation, 185.--(3) Progressive change in one direction, 185.--(4) Pulsatory or irregular changes, 186.--III. cancellation Sea, 186.--California lakes and trees, 188.--Palmyra as an example of effect of climatic changes, 188.--Nature of such changes, 189.--Dates of changes in old world and new, 191.--IV. Historical effects of changes: (1) Economic results, agriculture, forests, cattle, 194.--(2) Political results, taxation, barbarian invasion, 198.--(3) Biological results, elimination of Nordics, increase of malaria, decline of physical energy, 201.--V. Climate and civilization, 204.--Conclusion, 207.

Notes and References

This item contains 15 references.

  • 1
    JuStuls von Liebig, Die Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physi- ologie. 9te auflage, 1876, pp. 51 ff.
  • 2
    V. (;. Simkhovitch, " Rome's Fall Rteconsid(red," Political Science Quarterly, June, 1916.
  • 2
    Rodbertus, " Zur Gesehiolte der agrarisolien Entwieklung Ronis ureter den Kaisern," Jahrbücher für Nat. Oek., vol. ii, (1864 pp. 213-19.
  • 1
    C. R. Van Hise, The Conservation of Natural Resources in the United States, 1912, pp. 322 and 338.
  • 2
    F. A. Fetter, Economic Principles, 1915, p. 445
  • 1
    J. Conrad, Liebig's Ansicht von der Bodenerschöpfung, Jena, 1864
  • 1
    V. G. Simkhovitch, " Rome's Fall Reconsidered," Political Science Quarterly, p. 226, June, 1916.
  • 1
    . W. Gregory, Cyrenaica, Geographical Journal, vol. 47, p. 321. London, 1916.
  • 1
    Butler's views see " Palestine and its Trans- formation," Boston, 1911 p. 291.
  • 1
    Geographi- cal Journal, vol. 43, p. 451, London, 1914.
  • 1
    The Pulse of Asia, by the present writer, pp. ,327 ff., Boston, 1907.
  • 2
    The Pulse of Asia, pp. 287, 344
  • 1
    Liebig, Die Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agrikultur. . . .9th ed., p. 53.
  • 1
    Jones, W. H. S., Malaria: A Neglected Factor in the History of Greece and Rome, 1907
  • 1
    Civilization and Climate, p. 200