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American Shoemakers, 1648-1895: A Sketch of Industrial Evolution

John R. Commons
The Quarterly Journal of Economics
Vol. 24, No. 1 (Nov., 1909), pp. 39-84
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1886057
Page Count: 46
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American Shoemakers, 1648-1895: A Sketch of Industrial Evolution
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Abstract

Industrial stages illustrated by the shoemakers, 39. -- The Company of Shoomakers, 1648 (Boston). Itinerant cobbler and craft gild, 40. -- II. The Society of Master Cordwainers, 1789, and the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, 1974 (Philadelphia). Retailshop and wholesale-order stages, 45. -- III. The United Beneficial Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, 1835 (Philadelphia). Wholesale-speculative stage, 59. Economic causes of class organization; the bargain, 65; the period of investment, 67; the level of the competitive menace, 68; protective organizations, 69. -- IV. Knights of St. Crispin, 1868, 72. The factory system, 73. -- V. Industrial Evolution in Europe and America. Organization and legislation for protection, 76.

Notes and References

This item contains 25 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Records of the Colony of the Massa- chusetts Bay in New England, Vol. 3, p. 132.
  • 1
    Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. III, 2d Series, p. 13, Boston, 1826.
  • 1
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Bücher, Die Entstehung der Volkswirtschaft. (Citations are fromWiekett's translation, Industrial Evolution, New York, 1901.)
    • Sombart, Der Moderne Kapitalismus, I: 93-94.
  • 2
    Bücher, 169
  • 1
    American Bureau of Industrial Research and the Carnegie Institution of Wash- ington, in the Documentary History of American Industrial Society, published by A. H. Clark & Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 2
    U. S. Bulletin of Labor. No. 61, p. 860.
  • 1
    Trial, p. 34
  • 2
    Trial, p. 60
  • 1
    Trial, p. 92
  • 2
    Trial p. 61, 99
  • 3
    Trial, pp. 34, 51
  • 1
    Pennsylvanian, April 4, 1835.
  • 1
    Pennsylvanian, June 15, 1835.
  • 2
    Pennsylvanian, March 26, 1836.
  • 1
    Pennsylvanian, June 20, 1835. p. 2 c. 7.
  • 2
    Pennsylvanian, Sept. 5, 1835.
  • 3
    Pennsylvanian, Oct. 1, 1835.
  • 1
    Pennsylvanian, April 4, 1835.
  • 2
    New York Trades' Union, "The Man," 1834
  • 1
    Freedley, E. T., Philadelphia and its Manufactories, p. 187, says in 1858
  • 2
    Freedley, p. 188
  • 1
    Schmoller, Grundriss, etc., I: 254 ff
  • 3
    Jahrbuch f. Gesetzgebung, vol. 17, p. 303, vol. 18, p. 318
  • 4
    Sombart, Der Moderne Kapitalismus, I, 95.
  • 1
    Colony of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, vol. 3, p. 132