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Artificial Intelligence and Philosophy of Science: Reasoning by Analogy in Theory Construction

Lindley Darden
PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association
Vol. 1982, Volume Two: Symposia and Invited Papers (1982), pp. 147-165
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/192416
Page Count: 19
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Artificial Intelligence and Philosophy of Science: Reasoning by Analogy in Theory Construction
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Abstract

This paper examines the hypothesis that analogies may play a role in the generation of new ideas that are built into new explanatory theories. Methods of theory construction by analogy, by failed analogy, and by modular components from several analogies are discussed. Two different analyses of analogy are contrasted: direct mapping (Mary Hesse) and shared abstraction (Michael Genesereth). The structure of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection shows various analogical relations. Finally, an "abstraction for selection theories" is shown to be the structure of a number of theories.

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