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The Relationship between Seats and Votes in Two-Party Systems

Edward R. Tufte
The American Political Science Review
Vol. 67, No. 2 (Jun., 1973), pp. 540-554
DOI: 10.2307/1958782
Stable URL:
Page Count: 15
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The Relationship between Seats and Votes in Two-Party Systems
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Notes and References

This item contains 13 references.

  • 1
    Donald Stokes and Gudmund Iversen, "National Totals of Votes Cast for Democratic and Republican Candidates for the U.S. House of Representatives, 1866-1960," July, 1962, mimeo, Survey Research Center, University of Michi- gan. Congressional Directories (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office)
  • 2
    Douglas Rae, The Political Consequences of Elec- toral Laws (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967), p. 73.
  • 3
    Robert A. Dahl in A Preface to Democratic Theory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956), pp. 147- 149
  • 4
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • D. E. Butler, The Elec- toral System in Britain Since 1918 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, Second ed., 1963), p. 196
    • Duncan MacRae, "Models of Legislative Representation," mimeo, Uni- versity of Chicago, 1969.
    • Albert H. Bowker and Gerald J. Lieberman, Engineering Statistics (Engle- wood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1959), p. 253
  • 5
    Robert G. Dixon, Jr., "The Court, The People, and 'One Man, One Vote,'" in Reapportionment in the 1970s, ed. Nelson W. Polsby (Berkeley: Univer- sity of California Press, 1971), p. 13.
  • 6
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • M. G. Kendall and A. Stuart, "The Law of Cubic Proportions in Electoral Results," British Jour- nal of Sociology, 1 (September, 1950), 183-197
    • Ken- dall and Stuart, "La Loi du Cube dans les Elections Britanniques," Revue Française de Science Politique, 2 (April-June, 1952), 270-276.
  • 7
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • D. E. Butler, The British General Election of 1951 (London: Macmillan, 1952), pp. 275-276
    • James G. March, "Party Legislative Representation as a Func- tion of Election Results," Public Opinion Quarterly, 11 (Winter, 1957-58), 521-542
    • "Electoral Facts," The Economist, January 7, 1950, 5-7
    • Terrence H. Qualter, "Seats and Votes: An Application of the Cube Law to the Canadian Electoral System," Ca- nadian Journal of Political Science, 1 (September, 1968), 336-344.
    • Samuel J. Eldersveld, "Polling Results and Prediction Techniques in the British General Election of 1950," in James K. Pollock, British Elec- tion Studies (Ann Arbor: George Wahr Publishing Co., 1951), pp. 75-78
    • Ralph H. Brookes, "Legislative Representation and Party Vote in New Zealand: Reflections on the March Analysis," Public Opinion Quarterly, 23 (Summer, 1954), 288-291.
  • 8
    Henri Thiel, "The Cube Law Revisited," Journal of the American Statistical Association, 65 (September, 1970), 1213-1219.
  • 9
    David Butler and Donald Stokes discuss the issue in detail in Political Change in Britain (London: Macmillan, 1969), pp. 303-312.
  • 10
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • David Sankoff and Koula Mellos, "The Swing Ratio and Game Theory," American Political Sci- ence Review, 66 (June, 1972), 551-554.
    • Richard E. Quandt, "A Sto- chastic Model of Elections in Two-Party Systems," un- published manuscript, Princeton, 1972.
  • 11
    Henri Thiel, Prin- ciples of Econometrics (New York: John Wiley, 1971), pp. 632-636.
  • 12
    Donald E. Stokes, "Parties and the Nationaliza- tion of Electoral Forces," in The American Party Sys- tems, ed. William N. Chambers and Walter Dean Burn- ham (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968), 182-202.
  • 13
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Stokes; Nelson W. Polsby, "The Institu- tionalization of the U.S. House of Representatives," American Political Science Review, 62 (March, 1968), 144-168
    • David R. Mayhew, "Con- gressional Representation: Theory and Practice in Drawing the Districts," in Reapportionment in the 1970s, ed. Nelson W. Polsby, pp. 249-290.