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Pennsbury Manor: Reconstruction and Reality

Mark Reinberger and Elizabeth P. McLean
The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography
Vol. 131, No. 3 (Jul., 2007), pp. 263-306
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20093949
Page Count: 44
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Pennsbury Manor: Reconstruction and Reality
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Notes and References

This item contains 134 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Charles B. Hosmer Jr., Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust, 1926-1949 (Charlottesville, VA, 1981), 1:444-50
    • William W. Weaver and Nancy D. Kolb, "Okie Speaks for Pennsbury," Pennsylvania Heritage 8, no. 4
    • 9, no. 1 (1982-83): 22-26, 22-26.
    • Carl R. Lounsbury, "Beaux-Arts Ideals and Colonial Reality: The Reconstruction of Williamsburg's Capitol, 1928-1934," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 49 (1990): 373-89
    • Philadelphia context, David R. Contosta, "Philadelphia's 'Miniature Williamsburg': The Colonial Revival and Germantown's Market Square," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 120 (1996): 283-320.
  • 2
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Fiske Kimball, Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and of the Early Republic (New York, 1922)
    • Hugh Morrison, Early American Architecture: From the First Colonial Settlements to the National Period (New York, 1952)
    • William H. Pierson Jr., American Buildings and Their Architects: The Colonial and Neoclassical Styles (Garden City, NY, 1970)
    • James D. Kornwolf, Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial North America (Baltimore, 2002), 2:1217-19.
  • 3
    Kornwolf, Architecture and Town Planning, 2:1219.
  • 4
    Hosmer, Preservation Comes of Age, 1:399.
  • 5
    "The Recreated Pennsbury Manor" (research report, Pennsbury Society, Oct. 1989)
  • 6
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Frank W. Melvin, "The Romance of the Pennsbury Manor Restoration," Pennsylvania History 7 (1940): 1432-52.
    • Weaver and Kolb, "Okie Speaks for Pennsbury."
  • 7
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Sandra L. Tatman and Roger W. Moss, Biographical Dictionary of Philadelphia Architects, 1700-1930 (Boston, 1985), 583.
    • Joseph Hergesheimer, From an Old House (New York, 1926).
  • 8
    Barbara Burlison Mooney, "Lincoln's New Salem: Or, the Trigonometric Theorem of Vernacular Restoration," Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture Journal 11 (2004): 19-39.
  • 9
    R. Brognard Okie to Donald Cadzow, Sept. 25, 1936
  • 10
    R. Brognard Okie, "The Re-Creation of Penn's Manor" (typescript, 1940), 10, Pennsbury Archives.
  • 11
    Weaver and Kolb, "Okie Speaks for Pennsbury."
  • 12
    Cavicchi, "Recreated Pennsbury Manor," 14.
  • 13
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • R. Brognard Okie to Donald Cadzow, Sept. 11, 1942
    • Cridland was the author of Practical Landscape Gardening (New York, 1916)
  • 14
    Hergesheimer, From an Old House, 157.
  • 15
    Donald Cadzow to R. Brognard Okie, Sept. 25, 1942
  • 18
    Donald Cadzow to R. Brognard Okie, Aug. 3, 1942, Pennsbury Archives.
  • 19
    Gervase Markham's Certaine Excellent and New Invented Knots and Mazes (London, 1623).
  • 20
    Richard S. Dunn et al., eds., The Papers of William Penn, 5 vols. (Philadelphia, 1981-87), 2:525 (hereafter Penn Papers).
  • 21
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Penn Papers, 2:299-300
    • William J. Buck, William Penn in America (Philadelphia, 1888), 110-11
    • Terry A. McNealy, A History of Bucks County, Pennsylvania ([Fallsington, PA], 1970), 27, 40-45.
  • 22
    Penn Papers, 2:524.
  • 23
    McNealy, History of Bucks County, 43.
  • 24
    Marion Balderston, "William Penn's 23 Ships," Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine 23 (1963): 35, 45.
  • 25
    James Harrison to William Penn, Feb. 23, 1684, Penn Papers, 2:524-26.
  • 26
    Papers of William Penn (Philadelphia, 1975), microfilm ed., reel 4 (hereafter referred to as Penn Papers Micro).
  • 27
    William Penn to James Harrison, July 1684, Penn Papers, 2:568-69.
  • 28
    William Penn to James Harrison, Oct. 25, 1685, Penn Papers, 3:65.
  • 29
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Penn Papers, 3:66-67, 256 and 4:113-14, 219-20
    • Hannah Penn to James Logan, n.d. [1701], Correspondence between William Penn and James Logan, Secretary of the Province of Pennsylvania, and Others, 1700-1750, 2 vols. (1870-72; repr., New York, 1972), 1:42 (hereafter Penn-Logan Letters)
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Dec. 4 and 6, 1685, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5
    • Gary B. Nash and Jean R. Soderlund, Freedom by Degrees: Emancipation in Pennsylvania and Its Aftermath (New York, 1991), 9-14
    • Harry Emerson Wildes, William Penn (New York, 1974), 322-27.
  • 30
    William Penn to James Harrison, Apr. 24, 1686, Penn Papers, 3:89-93.
  • 31
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Charles II's charter to William Penn. Penn Papers, 2:65.
    • Wildes, William Penn, 128.
  • 32
    Wildes, William Penn, 197-98.
  • 33
    Robert Turner to William Penn, June 26, 1697, Penn Papers Micro, reel 7.
  • 34
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Mark Reinberger and Elizabeth McLean, "Isaac Norris's Fairhill: Architecture, Landscape, and Quaker Ideals in a Philadelphia Colonial Country Seat," Winterthur Portfolio 32 (1997): 243-74.
    • McNealy, History of Bucks County, 40-41
  • 35
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Jan. 28, 1687, Penn Papers, 3:138
    • Warren R. Hofstra, The Planting of New Virginia: Settlement and Landscape in the Shenandoah Valley (Baltimore, 2004), 22, 51, 121.
  • 36
    William Penn to James Harrison, Jan. 28, 1687, Penn Papers, 3:134-35.
  • 37
    William Penn to Commissioners of Propriety, Apr. 14, 1689, Penn Papers, 3:241.
  • 38
    William Markham to William Penn, July 21, 1688, Penn Papers, 3:201
  • 39
    William Penn to James Harrison, ca. Feb. 1687, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 40
    Dianne C. Johnson, "Living in the Light: Quakerism and Colonial Portraiture," in Quaker Aesthetics: Reflections on a Quaker Ethic in American Design and Consumption, ed. Emma Jones Lapsansky and Anne A. Verplanck (Philadelphia, 2003), 122.
  • 41
    John Blackwell to William Penn, May 15, 1690, Penn Papers, 3:279.
  • 42
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • John Blackwell to William Penn, Jan. 25, 1689
    • William Penn to Commissioners of Propriety, Apr. 14 1689
    • William Penn to Robert Turner, Oct. 4, 1689, Penn Papers, 3:218, 240, 263.
  • 43
    William Penn to John Blackwell, Sept. 25, 1689, Penn Papers Micro, reel 6.
  • 44
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Penn Papers, 3:259n7
    • Charles Thomford, "William Penn's Estate at Pennsbury and the Plants of Its Kitchen Garden" (MA thesis, University of Delaware, 1986), 25.
  • 45
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • William Penn to Commissioners of Propriety, Dec. 4, 1690, published in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 33 (1909): 316-17
    • McNealy, History of Bucks County, 43.
  • 46
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • William Penn to Commissioners of Propriety, Dec. 4, 1690
    • William Penn to Robert Turner and Thomas Holme, June 20, 1695
    • William Penn to Robert Turner, Dec. 25, 1696, Penn Papers, 3:290-91, 408, 471.
  • 47
    Richard S. Dunn, "Penny Wise and Pound Foolish: Penn as Businessman," in The World of William Penn, ed. Richard S. Dunn and Mary Maples Dunn (Philadelphia, 1986), 37-52.
  • 48
    William Penn to James Logan, Aug. 22, 1700, Penn Papers Micro, reel 8.
  • 49
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • William Penn to James Logan, Aug. 7, 1700, Penn-Logan Letters, 1:7, though with date Sept. 6 (6th 7mo)
    • William Penn to James Logan, Aug. 19, 1700, Penn Papers Micro, reel 8
    • William Penn to James Logan, June 30, 1701, Penn-Logan Letters, 1:43
    • William Penn to James Logan, Sept. 4, 1700, Penn Papers, 3:616-17
    • William Penn to James Logan, Aug. 31, 1700, and Sept. 3, 1700, in Penn-Logan Letters, 1:11, 14
    • William Penn to James Logan, Jan. 4, 1700/1, Penn Papers Micro, reel 8.
  • 50
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Donald Cadzow's small sketch plan, dated 1934
    • Charles H. Hazard, dated October 21, 1933.
    • The November 1934 "Studies for Reconstruction of Pennsbury House" by John G.
  • 51
    William Penn to James Harrison, Apr. 24, 1686, Penn Papers, 3:90
  • 53
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • "Draught of the Mannor of Pennsbury in the County of Bucks . . . Surveyed in the Year 1736," Streper Papers Bucks County, p. 149
    • Penn Papers, 4:133.
  • 54
    Thomas Holme, A Map of ye Improved Part of Pensilvania in America . . . , ca. 1690
  • 55
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Kimball, Domestic Architecture, 14-19
    • Henry Bridgham House in Boston (1670)
    • John Ward House in Salem, Massachusetts (1684)
    • George Heathcote survey of 1692, in Land Records Office, Book D-68, p. 238
  • 56
    William Markham to William Penn, July 21, 1688, Penn Papers, 3:195.
  • 58
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Gabriel Thomas, "An Historical and Geographical Account of Pensilvania and of West-New-Jersey," London, 1698, in Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey and Delaware 1630-1707, ed. Albert Cook Myers (New York, 1912), 320.
    • Edmund Morris to John F. Watson, June 22, 1826, John F. Watson Correspondence, 1823-1828, p.151
  • 59
    William Penn to James Harrison, May 19, 1685, Penn Papers, 3:56.
  • 60
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Linda Hall, "Yeoman or Gentleman? Problems in Defining Social Status in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Gloucestershire," Vernacular Architecture 22 (1991): 5, 8
    • Nicholas Cooper, Houses of the Gentry, 1480-1680 (New Haven, CT, 1999), 6
    • John E. Crowley, The Invention of Comfort: Sensibilities and Design in Early Modern Britain and Early America (Baltimore, 2001), 56-58.
  • 61
    "Letters Written by Penn to James Harrison . . ." (typescript, 1939), Pennsbury Archives.
  • 62
    Cooper, Houses of the Gentry, 273-322.
  • 63
    William Penn to James Harrison, Robert Turner, and Thomas Holmes, ca. early Apr. 1686, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 64
    William Penn to James Harrison, May 19, 1685, Penn Papers, 3:55.
  • 65
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Thomas Penn to Richard Hockley, Mar. 24, 1752, in The Thomas Penn Papers at The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1728-1832, ed. John D. Kilbourne (Philadelphia, 1968), micro- film ed., reel 1 (hereafter Thomas Penn Papers).
    • Carl Lounsbury, ed., An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and Landscape (New York, 1994).
  • 66
    Daniel D. Reiff, Small Georgian Houses in England and Virginia: Origins and Development through the 1750s ([Newark, DE], 1986), 18.
  • 67
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Cooper, Houses of the Gentry, 242, 303
    • Roger North, Of Building: Roger North's Writings on Architecture, ed. Howard Colvin and John Newman (Oxford, 1981), 124, 130-31
    • Mark Girouard, Life in the English Country House: A Social and Architectural History (1978; repr., New York, 1980), 151.
  • 68
    R. W. Brunskill, Houses (London, 1982), 51-53.
  • 69
    Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, An Inventory of Historical Monuments: The Town of Stamford (London, 1977), l-li.
  • 71
    William Penn to James Harrison, Mar. 18, 1685, Penn Papers, 3:38.
  • 72
    William Penn to James Harrison, Robet Turner, and Thomas Holmes, Apr. 24 1686, Penn Papers, 3:89-93.
  • 73
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Kornwolf, Architecture and Town Planning, 1219
    • Old-Time New England 14 (Apr. 1924): 193-94
    • Lounsbury, ed., Illustrated Glossary, 316.
  • 74
    William Penn to Hannah Callowhill, Feb. 9, 1696, Penn Papers, 3:431.
  • 75
    Clare Lise Cavicchi, "Pennsbury Manor Furnishing Plan" (research report, The Pennsbury Society, 1988), 4
  • 76
    North, Of Building.
  • 77
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • John Fanning Watson to [Roberts Vaux?], Aug. 26, 1826
    • John F. Watson Correspondence, 1823-1828, p. 151.
    • John F. Watson, Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, in the Olden Time (1844; Philadelphia, 1881), 2:102
    • Cavicchi, "Pennsbury Manor Furnishing Plan," 4 also discusses this.
  • 78
    William Penn to James Harrison, Mar. 18, 1685, Oct. 25, 1685, and Apr. 24, 1686, Penn Papers, 3:38, 66, 90.
  • 79
    Hannah Penn to James Logan, Aug. 2, 1700, Penn-Logan Letters, 1:5-7.
  • 80
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Okie, "The Re-creation of Penn's Manor"
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Robert Turner, and Thomas Holmes, ca. early Apr. 1686, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Robert Turner, and Thomas Holmes, Apr. 24, 1686, Penn Papers, 2:89-93
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Nov. 7, 1685, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 81
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • William Penn to James Harrison, July 11 and 30, and Aug. 3, 1685, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5
    • James Harrison to William Penn, Nov. 29, 1686, Penn Papers Micro, reel 8
    • William Penn to James Logan, Aug. 7, 1700, Penn-Logan Letters, 1:7
    • William Penn to James Logan, Aug. 19, 1700, Penn Papers Micro, reel 8
    • William Penn to James Logan, June 30, 1701, Penn-Logan Letters, 1:43.
  • 82
    William Penn to James Harrison, Nov. 7, 1685, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 83
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Mar. 18, 1685, Penn Papers, 3:38
    • Lounsbury, ed., Illustrated Glossary, 207.
  • 84
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Nov. 17, 1686
    • William Penn to James Harrison, July 11 and 30, and Aug. 3, 1685, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5
    • James Harrison to William Penn, Oct. 3, 1686, in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 4 (1880): 451.
  • 85
    William Penn to James Harrison, May 19, 1685, Penn Papers, 3:55.
  • 86
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • William Penn gardening directions to Ralph Smyth, ca. Aug. 1684
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Mar. 18, 1685, May 19, 1685, Oct. 25, 1685, Penn Papers, 2:584-85, 3:38-41, 55-58, 65-68
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Nov. 17 and Nov. 20, 1686, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 87
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • William Penn gardening directions to Ralph Smyth, ca. Aug. 1684
    • William Penn to James Harrison, May 19, 1685, Penn Papers, 2: 584-85, 3:55-58
    • William Penn to James Harrison, July 11, 1685, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 88
    Reinberger and McLean, "Isaac Norris's Fairhill."
  • 89
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Oct. 25, 1685, Penn Papers, 3:65
    • William Penn to James Harrison, Nov. 7, 1685, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 90
    William Penn to James Harrison, Apr. 9, 1687, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 91
    William Penn gardening directions to Ralph Smyth, ca. Aug. 1684, Penn Papers, 2:584-85.
  • 92
    William Penn to James Harrison, Oct. 25, 1685, Penn Papers, 3:65-68.
  • 93
    William Penn to James Harrison, Mar. 18, 1685, Penn Papers, 3:38.
  • 94
    William Penn gardening directions to Ralph Smyth, ca. Aug. 1684, Penn Papers, 2:584-85.
  • 95
    William Penn to James Logan, June 26, 1709, Penn Papers Micro, reel 13.
  • 96
    William Penn to James Harrison, Jan. 28, 1687, Penn Papers, 3:138.
  • 97
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • William Penn gardening directions to Ralph Smyth, ca. Aug. 1684, Penn Papers, 2:584
    • William Penn to James Harrison, n.d. [ca. Feb. 1687], Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 98
    William Penn to James Harrison, Oct. 4, 1685, transcript in Pennsbury Archives.
  • 99
    James Harrison to William, Oct. 3, 1686, in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 4 (1880): 451.
  • 100
    William Penn to James Harrison, Oct. 10, 1686, transcript in Pennsbury Archives.
  • 101
    William Penn to James Harrison, n.d. [ca. Sept., Oct. 1686], transcript in Pennsbury Archives.
  • 102
    William Penn to James Harrison, July 11, 1685, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 103
    William Penn to James Harrison, n.d. [ca. Feb. 1687], Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 104
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Reinberger and McLean, "Isaac Norris's Fairhill."
    • J. William Frost, "From Plainness to Simplicity: Changing Quaker Ideals for Material Culture," in Quaker Aesthetics, ed. Lapsansky and Verplanck, 16-40.
    • Bernard Herman, "Eighteenth-Century Quaker Houses in the Delaware Valley and the Aesthetics of Practice," 206
  • 105
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott, History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884 (Philadelphia, 1884), 1:162-63.
    • Catherine Owens Peare, William Penn: A Biography (Philadelphia, 1956), 368, 372.
  • 106
    Watson, Annals of Philadelphia, 2:101.
  • 107
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • John Fanning Watson to [Roberts Vaux?], Aug. 26, 1826
    • John F. Watson Correspondence, 1823-1828, p. 151.
  • 108
    Weaver and Kolb, in "Okie Speaks for Pennsbury,"
  • 109
    John Richardson, An Account of the Life of that Ancient Servant of Jesus Christ, John Richardson (Philadelphia, 1783), 133-38.
  • 110
    Silent Witness: Quaker Meetinghouses in the Delaware Valley, 1695 to the Present ([Philadelphia, 2002]).
  • 111
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Samuel Carpenter accounts, July 1684-1709, Penn Papers Micro, reel 4
    • "William Penn's Account with Samuel Jennings, Receiver General, 1690-1693," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 35 (1911): 199-210
    • William Penn cash book, 1699-1700, Penn Papers Micro, reel 8
  • 112
    Dunn, "Penny Wise and Pound Foolish," 39.
  • 113
    George Fox to Henry Sidon, May 25, 1677, Penn Papers, 1:376-77.
  • 114
    Wildes, William Penn, 315
  • 115
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Wildes, William Penn, 64
    • Penn Papers, 2:287-90.
  • 116
    Wildes, William Penn, 376.
  • 117
    William Penn to Hannah Penn, Jan. 11, 1710, Penn Papers, 4:671-72.
  • 118
    Tom Williamson, Polite Landscapes: Gardens and Society in Eighteenth-Century England (Baltimore, 1995), 35.
  • 119
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Dunn, "Penny Wise and Pound Foolish,"
    • Dunn (39-41)
  • 120
    Wildes, William Penn, 319, 324-26.
  • 121
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Hannah Penn to Elizabeth Taylor, Mar. 6, 1701, Penn Papers, 4:35
    • Wildes, William Penn, 331.
  • 122
    William Penn to the Duke of Hamilton, July 5, 1700, Penn Papers, 3:606.
  • 123
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • James Logan to William Penn, Oct. 2, 1702
    • James Logan to William Penn, Dec. 1, 1702, Penn Papers Micro, reel 10
    • William Penn to James Logan, Apr. 1, 1703, Penn Papers, 4:219
    • Penn- Logan Letters, 1:181ff.
  • 124
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Penn Papers, 4:257-58
    • William Penn Jr. to William, Feb. 15, 1704, Penn Papers, 4:261
    • Wildes, William Penn, 293, 340-41.
  • 125
    James Logan to William Penn, July 20, 1704, Penn Papers Micro, reel 11.
  • 126
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Charles P. Keith, Chronicles of Pennsylvania, from the English Revolution to the Peace of Aix-la-Chappelle, 1688-1748 (Philadelphia, 1917), 1:440
    • Patricia U. Bonomi, The Lord Cornhury Scandel: The Politics of Reputation in British America (Chapel Hill, NC, 1998), 94.
  • 127
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • William Jr. in 1703
    • William Penn and William Penn Jr., May 4, 1703, Penn Papers Micro, reel 10.
  • 128
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • William Penn to James Logan, Apr. 1, 1703, Penn Papers, 4:219
    • Penn-Logan Letters, 1:181ff.
  • 129
    William Penn to James Harrison, Robert Turner, and Thomas Holmes, ca. early Apr. 1686, Penn Papers Micro, reel 5.
  • 130
    William Penn to John and Mary Sotcher, Oct. 12, 1705, Penn Papers Micro, reel 12.
  • 131
    James Logan to William Penn, Apr. 5, 1705, Penn Papers Micro, reel 12.
  • 132
    James Logan to William Penn, Mar. 2, 1707, Penn Papers Micro, reel 13.
  • 133
    James Logan to William Penn, June 28, 1707, Penn-Logan Letters, 2:231.
  • 134
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • William Penn to James Logan, Sept. 29, 1708, Penn Papers, 4:622.
    • William Penn to James Logan, Oct. 14, 1709, Penn Papers, 4:660.
  • 135
    Thomas Penn to William Penn, Nov. 25, 1736, Thomas Penn Papers, reel 5.
  • 136
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Watson, Annals of Philadelphia, 2:101
    • Deborah Logan, in Penn-Logan Letters, 1:4
    • The Diary of Thomas P. Cope 1800-1851, ed. Eliza Cope Harrison (South Bend, IN, 1978), 241.
  • 137
    David Lowenthal, Possessed by the Past: The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History (New York, 1996).
  • 138
    Pennsbury Manor Furnishing Committee, "Penn and Pennsbury: A Report to the Pennsylvania Historical Commission" (1949), 3, in Pennsbury Archives.
  • 139
    Hosmer, Preservation Comes of Age, 447.