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Journal Article

# The Shooting-Room Paradox and Conditionalizing on Measurably Challenged Sets

Paul Bartha and Christopher Hitchcock
Synthese
Vol. 118, No. 3 (1999), pp. 403-437
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20118152
Page Count: 35
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## Abstract

We provide a solution to the well-known "Shooting-Room" paradox, developed by John Leslie in connection with his Doomsday Argument. In the "Shooting-Room" paradox, the death of an individual is contingent upon an event that has a 1/36 chance of occurring, yet the relative frequency of death in the relevant population is 0.9. There are two intuitively plausible arguments, one concluding that the appropriate subjective probability of death is 1/36, the other that this probability is 0.9. How are these two values to be reconciled? We show that only the first argument is valid for a standard, countably additive probability distribution. However, both lines of reasoning are legitimate if probabilities are non-standard. The subjective probability of death rises from 1/36 to 0.9 by conditionalizing on an event that is not measurable, or whose probability is zero. Thus we can sometimes meaningfully ascribe conditional probabilities even when the event conditionalized upon is not of positive finite (or even infinitesimal) measure.

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