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An Evaluation of Phylogenetic Relationships among the Thuidiaceae, the Amblystegiaceae, and the Temperate Members of the Hypnaceae

Lars Hedenäs
Lindbergia
Vol. 22, No. 3 (1997), pp. 101-133
Published by: Oikos Editorial Office
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20149954
Page Count: 33
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Abstract

The relationships between 93 species representing the Thuidiaceae, the Amblystegiaceae, and the temperate members of the Hypnaceae are evaluated using cladistic methods. These taxa have been suggested to be related to each other in an earlier overview study of the "pleurocarpous mosses", and similar suggestions have been made in other earlier published studies. Five different outgroups, Acrocladium auriculatum, Trachythecium verrucosum, Trachyphyllum inflexum, Myurium hochstetteri, and Rigodium implexum, varying from supposedly closely related groups (Acrocladium) to quite distant relatives (Rigodium) were used. The results of the present study suggest that the Thuidiaceae is a monophyletic taxon, whereas morphological and anatomical data do not support the recognition of the Amblystegiaceae or the Hypnaceae. The Thuidiaceae is circumscribed by nine gametophytic and one sporophytic character that occur only or almost only in members of this family. The Thuidiaceae clade, or, with Rigodium as outgroup, basal grade, appeared in all analyses where most of its members were included, although it had a poor Bremer and Bootstrap support. Several smaller clades have moderate to good support and / or appear in almost all analyses where their constituent species were included: (1) Lorentzia and Cyrto-hypnum atlanticum; (2) Cratoneuropsis and Palustriella; (3) Hamatocaulis and Scorpidium; (4) Calliergon, Loeskypnum, Straminergon, and Warnstorfia; (5) Caribaeohypnum and Ptilium. Also Campylophyllum halleri, C. hispidulum, Hygrohypnum montanum, H. norvegicum, Hypnum pallescens, and Hypnum recurvatum, or some of these species, were frequently found together in the analyses, but not as often as the previous five clades. Contrary to the results of the earlier analyses of the whole group of pleurocarpous mosses, of the "Hookeriales" plus Sematophyllaceae, and of the "Hookeriales", where characters of the sexual branches and the sporophyte were as important as, or more important than the gametophytic characters for the appearance of the cladogram, the latter kind of characters contributed most to the variation found between the taxa within the present group. In the present study, the number of "islands", with trees of similar length resulting from an analysis, increased with the supposed taxonomic distance between the outgroup and the ingroup.

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