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Palaeoclimates: The First Two Billion Years
James F. Kasting and Shuhei Ono
Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences
Vol. 361, No. 1470, Major Steps in Cell Evolution: Palaeontological, Molecular and Cellular Evidence of Their Timing and Global Effects (Jun. 29, 2006), pp. 917-929
Published by: Royal Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20209693
Page Count: 13
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Methane, Atmospherics, Paleoclimatology, Glaciation, Oceans, Sulfur, Earth, Surface temperature, Global climate models, Geology
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Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2 Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55-85 °C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9 Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3-2.4 Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO₂ or CH₄, or both. Solar luminosity was 20-25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O₂ at approximately 2.4 Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH₄, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H₂ and CH₄ caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis.
Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences © 2006 Royal Society