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Myosin II directly binds and inhibits Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors: a possible link to Rho family GTPases

Chan-Soo Lee, Chang-Ki Choi, Eun-Young Shin, Martin Alexander Schwartz and Eung-Gook Kim
The Journal of Cell Biology
Vol. 190, No. 4 (AUGUST 23, 2010), pp. 663-674
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20753855
Page Count: 12
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Myosin II directly binds and inhibits Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors: a possible link to Rho family GTPases
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Abstract

Cell migration requires the coordinated spatiotemporal regulation of actomyosin contraction and cell protrusion/adhesion. Nonmuscle myosin II (MII) controls Rac1 and Cdc42 activation, and cell protrusion and focal complex formation in migrating cells. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that MII interacts specifically with multiple Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Binding is mediated by the conserved tandem Dbl homology—pleckstrin homology module, the catalytic site of these GEFs, with dissociation constants of ∼0.3 μM. Binding to the GEFs required assembly of the MII into filaments and actin-stimulated ATPase activity. Binding of MII suppressed GEF activity. Accordingly, inhibition of MII ATPase activity caused release of GEFs and activation of Rho GTPases. Depletion of βPIX GEF in migrating NIH3T3 fibroblasts suppressed lamellipodial protrusions and focal complex formation induced by MII inhibition. The results elucidate a functional link between MII and Rac1/Cdc42 GTPases, which may regulate protrusion/adhesion dynamics in migrating cells.

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