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Effects of past, present, and future ocean carbon dioxide concentrations on the growth and survival of larval shellfish
Stephanie C. Talmage and Christopher J. Gobler
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 107, No. 40 (October 5, 2010), pp. 17246-17251
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20779948
Page Count: 6
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The combustion of fossil fuels has enriched levels of CO₂ in the world's oceans and decreased ocean pH. Although the continuation of these processes may alter the growth, survival, and diversity of marine organisms that synthesize CaCO₃ shells, the effects of ocean acidification since the dawn of the industrial revolution are not clear. Here we present experiments that examined the effects of the ocean's past, present, and future (21st and 22nd centuries) CO₂ concentrations on the growth, survival, and condition of larvae of two species of commercially and ecologically valuable bivalve shellfish (Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians). Larvae grown under near preindustrial CO₂ concentrations (250 ppm) displayed significantly faster growth and metamorphosis as well as higher survival and lipid accumulation rates compared with individuals reared under modern day CO₂ levels. Bivalves grown under near preindustrial CO₂ levels displayed thicker, more robust shells than individuals grown at present CO₂ concentrations, whereas bivalves exposed to CO₂ levels expected later this century had shells that were malformed and eroded. These results suggest that the ocean acidification that has occurred during the past two centuries may be inhibiting the development and survival of larval shellfish and contributing to global declines of some bivalve populations.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2010 National Academy of Sciences