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Roger Bacon and Experimental Method in the Middle Ages

Lynn Thorndike
The Philosophical Review
Vol. 23, No. 3 (May, 1914), pp. 271-298
Published by: Duke University Press on behalf of Philosophical Review
DOI: 10.2307/2178622
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2178622
Page Count: 28
Subjects: Philosophy
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Roger Bacon and Experimental Method in the Middle Ages
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Notes and References

This item contains 101 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Fr. Rogeri BaconOpera quaedam hactenus inedita. Ed. J. S. Brewer, London, 1859
    • Vol. 15 of Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores, (published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls and usually spoken of as " The Rolls Series ").
  • 2
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Roger Bacon in the Catholic Encyclopedia
    • " The Seventh Centenary of Roger Bacon (I2I4-I9I4)," by Fr. Paschal Robinson in The Catholic University Bulletin, Vol. xx, pp. 3-9 (Jan., 1914).
  • 3
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • The Opus Maius of Roger Bacon. Ed. J. H. Bridges, Vols. I and II, Oxford, 1897
    • Vol. III (correcting numerous errors in I and II), 1900.
  • 4
    English Historical Review, XII, 494-5I7.
  • 5
    Part of the Opus tertium of Roger Bacon. Ed. A. G. Little, Aberdeen, 1912.
  • 7
    Brewer, p. 1
  • 8
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • P. Feret, "Les emprisonnements de Roger Bacon," Revue des questions histori- ques, Vol. 50, pp. 119-I42.
    • A. Parrot, Roger Bacon et ses contemporains, Paris, 1894.
    • Brewer's edition and regrets that the Opus tertium is still unprinted (p. 5I).
  • 10
    Bridges, III, 158
  • 11
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • P. Mandonnet, "Roger Bacon et le 'Speculum astronomike,"' Revue Néo- Scolastique, Vol. 17 (Aug., 1910)
    • Ch. v. Langlois in the Revue de Paris for Sept. 1, 1900.
  • 12
    "W. H. V. R." on p. 810
  • 13
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Opus tertium, Cap. 2
    • Compendium studii, Cap. 8
    • Brewer, p. 14 and 472
  • 14
    K. Werner, "Die Kosmologie und allgemeine Naturlehre des Roger Baco," Sitzungsberichte d. ph.-hist. cl. etc., Wien, 1879, Band 94, p. 495.
  • 15
    "W. H. V. R." in English Historical Review, Vol. 28, p. 805 (Oct., I9I3).
  • 16
    Fratris Rogeri Bacon Compendium Studii Theologiœ. Ed. H. Rashdall, Aber- deen, 1911, p. 3.
  • 17
    Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant, Deuxieme edition, 1908-I9I0, Vol. I, pp. 40, 244-8.
  • 18
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Gasquet, 509
    • H. 0. Taylor, The Mediœval Mind, II, 486.
  • 19
    Westminster Review, Vol. 81, pp. 12, 9, and 252.
  • 20
    Taylor's discussion of Bacon occurs in Vol. II, pp. 483-508
  • 21
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Lib. I, Cap. i, of Picatrix as contained in Ms. XX, 20, National Library, Florence.
    • Alfonso X. (1252-1284)
  • 22
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Brewer, p. 542
    • De secretis operibus artis et naturœ et de nullitate magiœ, Cap. 7
  • 24
    Revue des questions historiques, Vol. 35 (1884), pp. 115-i66.
  • 24a
    H. O. Taylor, The Mediœval Mind, II, 500
  • 25
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • F. Picavet, Esquisse d'une histoire générale et comparée des philosophies médi- évales, Paris, 1905, p. 224.
    • P. E. M. Berthelot, La chimie au moyen dge, i893, 3 vols.
  • 26
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Bridges, II, 167-222
    • Little, 43-54
  • 27
    Gasquet, 510
  • 28
    Bridges, II, 172
  • 29
    Ibid., II, 201.
  • 30
    Gasquet, 502
  • 31
    Bridges, II, 169
  • 32
    Brewer, 46-47
  • 33
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Gasquet, 510
    • Bridges, passim
  • 34
    Bridges, II, 205
  • 35
    Ibid., 212.
  • 36
    Ibid., 210.
  • 37
    Ibid., 208.
  • 38
    Bridges, 202
  • 39
    Ibid., 219.
  • 40
    Ibid., 211.
  • 40a
    The Mediœval Mind, II, 500, 502, 504, 506
  • 41
    Adelardus Bathoniensis, Quœstiones naturales perdifficiles, Louvain, 1480, Caps. 16 and 18.
  • 42
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Alexander Neckam, De naturis rerum, II, 85, in Vol. 34 of the Rolls Series.
    • Neckam's editor, Thomas Wright, declared that "he not infrequently displays a taste for experimental knowledge."
  • 43
    Michael Scot's Liber Introductorius exists in manuscripts at Oxford (Bodleian 266) and at Munich (Cod. Lat. I0268).
  • 44
    Vincentius Bellovacensis, Speculum natural, Nurembergee, Anth. Koburger, 2 folio vols.
  • 45
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Petrus Hispanus, Thesaurus pauperum
    • Frankfurt, 1578
    • Histoire Littéraire de la France, Vol. XIX, 322 ff.
  • 46
    Pietro d'Abano, Conciliator differentiatum philosophorum et medicorum, Venice, 1526.
  • 48
    Conciliator, Diff. LX, fol. 83
  • 49
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Medicinalium Introductionum Speculum, Cap. 18
    • Repetitio super Canon 'Vita brevis,' fol. I27 in his Opera as edited at Lyons, 1532
    • De parte opera- tiva, fol. 276 in his Opera, Lyons, 1532.
  • 50
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • De occultis operibus naturœ ad quemdam militem, Vol. 27, pp. 504-7 in Frett6 et Maré's edition of his Opera: Paris, 1871-I880
    • Summa, secundae secunda, Quaest. 96, Art. 2.
  • 51
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • De mineralibus, Liber II, Tract. I
    • De veget. et plantis, V, II, 6
    • Borgnet's edition of Albert's works, Paris, I890-I899, 38 vols.
  • 52
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • De animalibus, 22, 2, 10
    • 22, 2, 99
    • 23, 1, 83
    • 23, 1, 5
    • 23, 1, 34
    • 23, 1, 35
    • 24, 1, 123
  • 53
    Ibid., 23, 1, 23
  • 54
    Ibid., 24, 1, 28.
  • 55
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Ibid., 23, 1, 40, caps. 18, 20, 21
    • 25, Introd.
    • 23, 1, 54
  • 56
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Ibid., 23, 1, 22.
    • Albert in 23, 1, 9
    • 25, 1, 13
    • 25, 1, 26
  • 57
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ibid., 23, 1, 9
    • 22, 2, 19, and 24, Introd.
  • 59
    Ibid., 25, 1, 28.
  • 60
    Albertus Magnus, De mineralibus, II, ii, 1
  • 61
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • De animalibus, 22, 2, 1, 21
    • Bridges, II, 168-9
    • Pouchet, 285-6
  • 62
    Bridges, II, 219
  • 63
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • De veget. et plantis, VI, i, 29
    • John of St. Amand, Expositio in Antidotarium Nicolai, fol. 268 in Mesuœ medici clarissimi opera, Venice, 1568.
  • 64
    De veget. et plantis, VI, i, 1
  • 65
    Physic., VIII, ii, 2
  • 66
    Clerval, Les Ecoles de Chartres, Chartres, 1895, p. 240.
  • 67
    Histoire Littéraire de la France, Vol. 30, pp. 371-2
  • 68
    Speculum astronomiœ, Cap. 7
  • 69
    Opera, Lyons, 1532, fol. 276
  • 70
    Bernard Gordon, Lilium medicinœ, Venice, 1496, fol. I59 (Pars V, Cap. 12).
  • 71
    Opera, Lyons, 1532, fol. 276
  • 72
    Regimen podagrœ, fol. 210-211 in the Opera
  • 73
    Regulœ generales curationis morborum, Doctrina IV
  • 74
    Medicinalium Introductionum Speculum, Cap. 19
  • 75
    Expositio in Antidotarium Nicolai, fol. 23I in Mesucœ medici clarissimi opera, Venice, 1568.
  • 75a
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Sebastian Vogl, Die Physik Roger Bacos, Erlangen, 1906, p. 17
    • Franz Strunz, Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften im Mittelalter, Stuttgart, 1910, 120 pp. (no references)
  • 76
    De epilepsia (fol. 3 IIf. in the Opera), Cap. 4.
  • 77
    De veget. et plantis, VI, ii, 1
  • 78
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • John of Gaddesden, Rosa medicinœ (written in the early fourteenth century). Papiae, 1492
    • Bernard Gordon'sLilium medicinœ, Partic. II, Cap. 25, fol. 76.
  • 79
    Lilium medicinœ, Partic. III, Cap. 5, fol. 94
  • 80
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Pietro d'Abano, Conciliator, Diff. X, fol. I5
    • Diff. LX, fol. 83.
    • Jean de Saint- Amand, Expositio in Antidotarium Nicolai, fol. 231
    • Arnald of Villanova, Re- petitio super Canon 'Vita brevis,' fol. 276
  • 82
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Kuhn, X, 28-31
    • I, 131 and 138
    • XIV, 675-6
  • 83
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Kuhn, XIV, 220 and 245, 679-680
    • I, 143
    • XVI, 82
    • I, 76 and 134
  • 84
    Kuhn, I, 76
  • 85
    Kuhn, XVI, 82
  • 86
    Kuhn, I, 135
  • 87
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Kuhn, XVI, 85-87
    • XI, 485 and 518
  • 88
    Petrus Hispanus, Thesaurus pauperum, Frankfurt, 1578, Preface.
  • 89
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Little, 46
    • Gasquet, 510
  • 90
    Little, 52
  • 91
    Ibid. 53.
  • 92
    Gasquet, 510
  • 93
    H. Hubert et M. Mauss, "Esquisse d'une Theorie Generale de la Magie," L'Annge Sociologique, I902-03, pp. I-I46, especially i09 ff.
  • 94
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Speculum naturale, XXXII, 119
    • XVI, 43
  • 95
    De somno et vigilia, III, i, 2
  • 96
    De mirabilibus mundi, p. 159 in an edition of Amsterdam, 1740 (Columbia University Library)
  • 97
    Opera of H. C. Agrippa Lyons, 1600, pp. 441-462 (Cornell University Library).
  • 98
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • De secretis naturœ (a portion of Scot's long work on astrology which is printed in the edition of Amsterdam, 1740, mentioned in note 96), Cap. 18
    • Bodleian ms. 266, fol. 22 v
  • 99
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Breviarium (fols. 150-205 of the Opera), III, 4
    • II, 45
  • 100
    De veget. et plantis, VI, 11, 1
  • 101
    Speculum astronomiœ, Cap. 17
  • 102
    Munich, Cod. Lat. 268 and 276
  • 103
    Denifle et Chatelain, Chartularium Universitatis Parisiensis, I, 543
  • 104
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Lynn Thorndike, The Place of Magic in the Intellectual History of Europe; New York, 1905.
    • "The Attitude of Origen and Augustine to Magic," The Monist, XVIII, 46-66 (January, 1908).
    • " Julius Firmicus Maternus, A Roman Astrologer as a Historical Source," Classical Philology, VIII, 415-435 (October, 1913).