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Flowering and Fruiting Patterns in the Temperate Rainforest of Chiloe, Chile--Ecologies and Climatic Constraints

Cecilia Smith-Ramirez and Juan J. Armesto
Journal of Ecology
Vol. 82, No. 2 (Jun., 1994), pp. 353-365
DOI: 10.2307/2261303
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2261303
Page Count: 13
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Flowering and Fruiting Patterns in the Temperate Rainforest of Chiloe, Chile--Ecologies and Climatic Constraints
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Abstract

1 The timing of appearance and the seasonal abundance of flower buds and flowers, and of green and ripe fruit of 61 species of native woody plants in the temperate rain forest of Chiloe Island $(42^\circ24'S)$, Chile, were recorded over the course of 2 years. 2 We evaluated the effectiveness of climatic and ecological variables to predict phenological trends in this forest. 3 Unimodal yearly patterns were found both for flowering and fruiting events in the community. In some species bimodal tendencies were detected at the population and/or individual level. 4 Some species produced flowers and/or fruits all year long, but flowering was concentrated in spring and summer. Fruiting was less seasonal and more variable in the 2 years than flowering. 5 Length of flowering and fruiting, and the peak of flowering were best correlated with ecological variables such as pollination and dispersal modes, and with family membership. Phenological differences between life forms were due to associated differences in family membership and pollination and dispersal modes. No effects could be ascribed to successional status or habitat preference of species. 6 Mean monthly temperatures were strongly and positively correlated with the number of species in flower or in fruit, and flowering was negatively correlated with average air humidity and total monthly precipitation. 7 The length of the fruit ripening period showed no correlation with mean fruit size. 8 Reproductive phenology in Chiloe was largely constrained by seasonal climatic variables, but ecological variables also need to be considered to account for the observed patterns of flowering and fruiting in this temperate forest.

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