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Nacionalismo y construcción estatal en Rusia: Un consenso social debilitado / Nationalism and state control in Russia: A weakened social consensus

Marlène Laruelle
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals
No. 96, VEINTE AÑOS DESPUÉS, ¿HACIA DÓNDE VA RUSIA? (DICIEMBRE 2011), pp. 63-79
Published by: CIDOB
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23074609
Page Count: 17
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Nacionalismo y construcción estatal en Rusia: Un consenso social debilitado / Nationalism and state control in Russia: A weakened social consensus
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Abstract

El nacionalismo en Rusia se desarrolla en diversos registros: es el instrumento por el cual una élite dirigente logra superar, al menos de forma aparente, sus divisiones internas y unificar el espectro político bajo su bandera; se puede también asemejar a una forma renovada de contrato social propulsada por el Estado que intenta aprovecharse de la apelación a elementos del sustrato cultural con capacidad para generar consensos en torno al patriotismo; por último, para una pequeña porción de la población comprometida con los partidos radicales de derechas, el nacionalismo facilita la movilización contra el "otro" en tiempos en los que el descontento social masivo se expresa en términos xenófobos. El nacionalismo es como un conglomerado polifacético que revela la multiplicidad de experiencias sociales y culturales vividas en la Rusia contemporánea. A través de él, quienes fracasaron en las reformas formulan sus críticas y su nostalgia por el pasado, mientras que las élites y las clases medias que se han beneficiado de estos cambios expresan su satisfacción y confianza en que Rusia ganará el juego de la globalización. Nationalism in Russia is played out on several registers. It is the instrument by which the ruling elites succeed in effacing (at least superficially) their internal divisions and unifying the political spectrum under their banner. It can also be likened to a new form of state-proposed social contract, an attempt to remobilise society to its advantage by drawing on those elements of its cultural reservoirs that form a consensus around the theme of patriotism. Lastly, for the tiny proportion of the population committed to radical right-wing parties, it makes it possible to mobilise against the "other" at a time when massive social discontent is being expressed in xenophobic terms. Nationalism is therefore akin to an amalgam that reveals the multiplicity of current social and cultural experiences in contemporary Russia. Through nationalism, those who have lost out as a result of the reforms formulate their critique of the present and their nostalgia for the past, whereas the elites and the middle classes that have gained from these changes express their satisfaction and belief that Russia will win the game of globalisation.

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