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THE SHANG STATE AS SEEN IN THE ORACLE-BONE INSCRIPTIONS
DAVID N. KEIGHTLEY
Vol. 5 (1979–80), pp. 25-34
Published by: Society for the Study of Early China
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23351630
Page Count: 10
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This paper was first prepared as a documentary appendix to "The Late Shang State: When, Where, and What?" (to be published in the conference volume, The Origins of Chinese Civilization), which, by analyzing a series of thirty-nine "state criteria" under the general headings of Sovereignty, Territoriality, Religion and Kinship, Alliance and Warfare, and Exchange, attempted to classify the state in developmental terms. The present paper presents the documentary evidence in more detail by translating and discussing characteristic inscriptions (generally from period I, the reign of Wu Ting) within each of the thirty-nine criteria. In so far as possible, the discussion focuses on the case of the Chou as a Shang state member. The evidence is particularly valuable because of the insights it gives into the daily activities of the Shang theocrat. 本文原是「晚商王朝；其時、其地及其性質」一文（將發表于會議論文集中國文化之起源一書中）的文獻附錄部份。「晚商」，一文在「主權」、「疆域」、「宗教」、「宗族」「結盟」、「征伐」、「貢納」這幾個大項目下，分析了三十九項「權成政治體制的基準」，透過對發展程度的觀察，試著確定商代國家的型態。本文則譯述以上三十九個項目內具有代表性的甲骨文，進一步的引微了文獻上的細節（這些甲骨文多半屬於第一期，即武丁之世）；在可能範圍內，把討論的焦點集中在商王朝的一個成員—周—的活動上。因為這些證據讓我們瞭解到商代神權政體的日常活動，所以特別可貴。
Early China © 1979 Society for the Study of Early China