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Isolation of sub-diploid microprotoplasts for partial genome transfer in plants: Enhancement of micronucleation and enrichment of microprotoplasts with one or a few chromosomes

K.S. Ramulu, P. Dijkhuis, I. Famelaer, T. Cardi and H.A. Verhoeven
Planta
Vol. 190, No. 2 (1993), pp. 190-198
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23382210
Page Count: 9
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Isolation of sub-diploid microprotoplasts for partial genome transfer in plants: Enhancement of micronucleation and enrichment of microprotoplasts with one or a few chromosomes
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Abstract

Results on the enhancement of the frequency of protoplasts with micronuclei, and on the isolation and enrichment of smaller sub-diploid microprotoplasts in transformed Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. are reported. Suspension cells were treated with the spindle toxin amiprophos-methyl (APM) for 48 h, and subsequently incubated in a mixture of cell-wall-digesting enzymes in the presence of APM and cytochalasin-B. During enzyme incubation, the frequency of micronucleated protoplasts increased by a factor of 2—6. A shorter period (3 h) of incubation with a higher concentration of enzymes as well as a longer period (16 h) of incubation with a lower concentration of enzymes gave similar frequencies of micronucleated protoplasts and yields of micronuclei. Further, synchronization by sequential treatment with the DNA-synthesis inhibitor hydroxy urea, or aphidicolin, followed by APM and enzyme incubation, significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated protoplasts and the number of micronuclei. The suspension of protoplasts (mono- and micronucleated) obtained after enzyme incubation was fractionated throuh a continuous iso-osmotic gradient of Percoll, using high-speed centrifugation. This resulted in one large and a few small bands, which contained a heterogeneous population of microprotoplasts, protoplasts and cytoplasts. In contrast to the large band, the small bands contained a relatively higher frequency of small sub-diploid microprotoplasts. To separate the small sub-diploid microprotoplasts from the large microprotoplasts and protoplasts of the bands, discontinuous Percoll gradients and sequential filtration through nylon sieves of decreasing pore size (48 — 20 — 15 — 10 — 5 μm) were investigated. Compared with the former method, the latter gave a highly enriched fraction containing predominantly (≈80%) small sub-diploid microprotoplasts with DNA contents equivalent to that of one to four chromosomes, as revealed by microdensitometric and flow-cytometric analyses. The application of this technique for partial genome and limited gene transfer is discussed.

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