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EN EL PAÍS DEL PROLETARIADO. CULTURA ESCRITA Y EXILIO INFANTIL EN LA URSS

Verónica Sierra Blas
Historia Social
No. 76 (2013), pp. 125-143
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23496334
Page Count: 19
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EN EL PAÍS DEL PROLETARIADO. CULTURA ESCRITA Y EXILIO INFANTIL EN LA URSS
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Abstract

El Gobierno republicano, con el fin de alejar a la infancia de los horrores de la guerra, organizó diferentes campañas de evacuación al extranjero a partir del año 1937, siendo la Unión Soviética uno de los países que los niños y niñas tuvieron como destino. Para supervisar y garantizar el cuidado y atención de los menores evacuados, el Ministerio de Instrucción Pública designó una serie de inspectores para que viajasen a los distintos países de acogida. El maestro Antonio Ballesteros fue el elegido para llevar a cabo esta labor en la URSS. Así, entre diciembre de 1937 y enero 1938 visitó algunas de las Casas de Niños que el Narkompros había acondicionado para acoger a la infancia española. Una vez terminada su misión, Ballesteros regresó a España trayéndose consigo algunos documentos que, a día de hoy, constituyen valiosos testimonios acerca de la vida cotidiana de los pequeños refugiados y de sus cuidadores en el “país del proletariado” (cartas, redacciones escolares, notas autobiográficas, etc.). Este artículo pretende reconstruir, a través de la documentación recopilada por este inspector, este episodio del exilio infantil español. During the Spanish Civil War, the Republican Government organised since 1937 some evacuations of children to different foreign countries. The main objective of these evacuated campaigns was to save the Spanish children. The URSS was one of the countries that offered its help to the sons of the republicans. In order to supervised and guaranteed the security and protection of the children, the Ministry of Public Instruction designed some educational inspectors to travel to the allied countries and visit the installations where children lived. Antonio Ballesteros Usano was the teacher elected by the republican authorities to carry out this important mission. The inspector visited between December 1937 et January 1938 some of the different Children's Maisons that the soviet Narkompros had created in the URSS for the Spanish Children. When he finished his mission, Ballesteros came back to Spain and brought with him some documents that, in the present time, are valuables testimonies about the daily life of the children and their carers in the "country of the proletariat" (letters, school exercises, autobiographic notes, etc.). This article wants to reconstruct, employing these documents compiled by the inspector, this historic episode of the Spanish children exile.

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