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Naturaleza Humana y Discapacidad Intelectual

XABIER ETXEBERRIA
Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia
T. 68, Fasc. 4 (2012), pp. 673-692
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23596157
Page Count: 20
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Naturaleza Humana y Discapacidad Intelectual
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Abstract

Nos inúmeros estudos sobre a natureza humana, a referência à deficiência intelectual é muito escassa. No entanto, assumi-la, além de acabar com uma marginalização injusta, poderia ensinar-nos muito. Com esta convicção, neste estudo analisa-se como essas pessoas são colocadas nas várias teorias sobre o ser humano e como, por sua vez, essas teorias são interpeladas por elas. Depois de propor um mapa das concepções mais influentes da natureza humana, estuda-se o lugar das pessoas com deficiência em propostas que destacam como chaves estes traços do humano: a subjectividade moral da dignidade, a linguagem e o pensamento, a natureza (animal), a cultura. Como resultado desta análise conclui-se a necessidade de repensar estas concepções, tanto a partir de critérios estritamente cognitivos como éticos. There is almost no reference to intellectual disability in the many studies about human nature. The incorporation of intellectual disability into those studies would help to overcome the unfair marginalization of affected people and would provide us with important insights into the human nature. This study examines the place of intellectually disable people in diverse philosophical anthropologies and how the incorporation of this human condition challenges them. After mapping the most influential conceptions of human nature, the paper reviews how intellectually disabled people are taken into account in theories that highlight the following key human features: moral subjectivity of dignity, language and thought, (animal) nature, culture. The study concludes that taking into account intellectual disability provides cognitive and moral reasons for rethinking current conceptions of the human nature.

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