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Formation and Expression of Pseudogenes on the B Chromosome of Rye
Ali Mohammad Banaei-Moghaddam, Karla Meier, Raheleh Karimi-Ashtiyani and Andreas Houben
The Plant Cell
Vol. 25, No. 7 (JULY 2013), pp. 2536-2544
Published by: American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB)
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23598291
Page Count: 9
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B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable components of the genomes of numerous species. In contrast with the prevalent view that Bs do not harbor genes, our recent sequence analysis revealed that Bs of rye (Secale cereale) are rich in gene-derived sequences. We compared these gene-like fragments of the rye B with their ancestral A-located counterparts and confirmed an A chromosomal origin and the pseudogenization of B-located gene-like fragments. About 15% of the pseudogene-like fragments on Bs are transcribed in a tissue-type and genotype-specific manner. In addition, B-located sequences can cause in trans down-or upregulation of A chromosome–encoded genic fragments. Phenotypes and effects associated with the presence of Bs might be explained by the activity of B-located pseudogenes. We propose a model for the evolution of B-located pseudogenes.
The Plant Cell © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB)