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The Principal Architectural Remains of the Early Bronze Age at Ai / השרידים האדריכליים העיקריים מתקופת-הברונזה הקדומה בעי
אמנון בן-תור, אהוד נצר, A. Ben-Tor and E. Netzer
Eretz-Israel: Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies / ארץ-ישראל: מחקרים בידיעת הארץ ועתיקותיה
Vol. יא, I. DUNAYEVSKY MEMORIAL VOLUME / ספר עמנואל דונאייבסקי (1973 / תשל"ג), pp. 1-7
Published by: Israel Exploration Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23617652
Page Count: 7
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In the last year of his life, I. Dunayevsky devoted much time to the three major architectural complexes at Ai: the fortifications, the sanctuary and the "acropolis temple". Several unfinished plans were found in his room after his death, demonstrating his interpretation of the stratigraphical sequence of these complexes; they were accompanied by brief notes. We have thought it best to present these plans with a brief commentary, based on his notes. 1. Fortifications (Figs. 1; 2:1—4). Dunayevsky preferred Callaway's terminology to that of Mrs. Krause. The terms "inner", "middle" or "outer" wall are applied locally, within a given area on the site, while in another area the application may vary: the "middle wall" in areas V 3—5 and V 1934—5 correlates with the "outer wall" in areas V 1—2 1935 and H 1934—5. Callaway's wall D, probably not a city-wall, represents a phase prior to the construction of the earliest city-wall (C), yet it is later than his walls G and J. When wall C went out of use, wall B was built; and houses of phase B were erected above wall C. Phase A was built last, and existed side by side with B. During phase A, too, houses were built over C, but not over B. 2. The sanctuary (Fig. 2 : 5—8). The semi-circular altar of Callaway's phase B, and a number of fragmentary walls, are ascribed to phase D by Dunayevsky: It is unclear whether this is already a temple, or whether phase D represents a pre-temple stage. Callaway's temple B = Dunayevsky's temple C. He accepted the great similarity of the two sub-phases of Callaway's temple A, but termed the earlier temple B and the later A. 3. The acropolis temple (Figs. 2 : 9—11; 3). Dunayesvky disagreed with Callaway's placing building B prior to A. In his view, walls A and B belong to the same phase, and the floors were cut not by the foundation trench of A, but by that of D (Fig. 3). This view eliminates the basic difficulty of Callaway's view: The floor of phase A should have been above the fill of its own foundation trench, yet the small stone bases, built against A and B, are at a level lower than that of the fill. Further, Dunayevsky proposed to reconstruct the area east of the building as a closed court. 4. Attempted correlation of the three complexes. There is a strong resemblance between the evolution of the fortifications and that of the sanctuary: In both cases, they were preceded by a number of meagre walls of no clear plan. The phase subsequent to the earliest is divided, in both cases, into two sub-phases, closely related in character: I — Poor walls, prior to earliest wall and sanctuary. II — Construction of city wall C and sanctuary C. Destruction IIIa — City wall B and sanctuary B. IIIb — City wall A (coexisting with wall B) and sanctuary A. Dunayevsky presented several possibilities in relating the acropolis temple to the above scheme, seemingly preferring the following: I — Meagre walls prior to the temple. II — The temple, with flat-topped bases, surrounded by wall B. IIIa—b — Wall B went out of use; walls D, F and H were built; raised-top bases. In yet another plan, the changes made in the temple after phase II are shown as carried out in two phases, in which case the building phases here, those of the fortifications and those in the sanctuary would correspond throughout.
Eretz-Israel: Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies / ארץ-ישראל: מחקרים בידיעת הארץ ועתיקותיה © 1973 Israel Exploration Society