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Topographical and Historical Considerations of Amenhotep II's Campaigns to Canaan / עיון טופוגרפי והיסטורי במסעותיו של אמנחותפ ב' לכנען

נדב נאמן and N. Na'aman
Eretz-Israel: Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies / ארץ-ישראל: מחקרים בידיעת הארץ ועתיקותיה
Vol. יז‎, A.J. BRAWER MEMORIAL VOLUME / ספר אברהם יעקב ברור‎ (1983 / תשמ"ד), pp. 257-262
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23619509
Page Count: 6
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Topographical and Historical Considerations of Amenhotep II's Campaigns to Canaan / עיון טופוגרפי והיסטורי במסעותיו של אמנחותפ ב' לכנען
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Abstract

This article discusses two geographical-historical problems relating to Amenhotep II's campaigns of years 7 and 9 respectively. In the first part, the location of Shemesh-edom is investigated. The capture of that city, on the 25th of the 9th month (=25/IX) appears as the first date of the campaign of year 7, parallel to the capture of Aphek on 25/III, the first date given in the campaign of year 9. The crossing of the Orontes one day later indicates that the Egyptian army was advancing from the west. The group of toponyms including Shemesh-edom in Thutmes III's topographical list (Nos. 48—59) is variegated, including towns from the Beqa' in Lebanon, the Bashan and the Lower Galilee, and thus it is of little help in locating Shemesh-edom. Amenhotep's second campaign was directed against Mitanni; the Egyptian army landed on the Lebanese coast and advanced along Nahr el-Kebir to the ford of the Orontes river, passing Shemesh-edom on its way, and thus it should be located one day's walk west of the ford. The decisive battle in Amenhotep's third campaign, of year 9, was fought near the towns of Adorain and Migdalain. These towns have generally been located in the northern Sharon area. Strategically speaking, this seems unlikely since a Canaanite league of towns would hardly choose to gather and fight Egypt with its rear to a narrow pass. Rather, the site of the battle, and of the two towns, should be located near the entrance from a narrow pass into a wide valley, parallel to the place where the Canaanite league fought Thutmes III (i.e. the Valley of Gina). Adorain and Migdalain should be sought either near the entrance to the Dothan valley or near the passage from the Vale of Dothan to the Jezreel valley, south of Taanach. Geba'shmoneh should be located in this same area, not far from Anaharath (Tel Rekhesh). Further identifications are proposed for toponyms Nos. 112—117 in the topographical list of Thutmes III: Helkath = Tell el-Harbaj; Jokneam = Tell Qeimûn; Geba' = Tell Abu Shusheh; ḏrr = Tel Zeror; Zephath = Tell el-Assawir; Burquna = Burqîn.

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