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Platelet-Derived Growth Factor B Chain Promoter Contains a Cis-Acting Fluid Shear-Stress-Responsive Element
Nitzan Resnick, Tucker Collins, William Atkinson, David T. Bonthron, C. Forbes Dewey, Jr. and Michael A. Gimbrone, Jr.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 90, No. 10 (May 15, 1993), pp. 4591-4595
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2362124
Page Count: 5
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The endothelial lining of blood vessels is constantly exposed to fluid mechanical forces generated by flowing blood. In vitro application of fluid shear stresses to cultured endothelial cells influences the expression of multiple genes, as reflected by changes in their steady-state mRNA levels. We have utilized the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-B) as a model to investigate the mechanisms of shear-stress-induced gene regulation in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Northern blot analysis revealed elevated endogenous PDGF-B transcript levels in BAECs, after exposure to a physiological level of laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2; 1 dyne = 100 mN) for 4 h. A transfected reporter gene, consisting of a 1.3-kb fragment of the human PDGF-B promoter coupled to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), indicated a direct effect on transcriptional activity. Transfection of a series of PDGF-B-CAT deletion mutants led to the characterization of a cis-acting component within the PDGF-B promoter that was necessary for shear-stress responsiveness. In gel-shift assays, overlapping oligonucleotide probes of this region formed several protein-DNA complexes with nuclear extracts prepared from both static and shear-stressed BAECs. A 12-bp component (CTCTCAGAGACC) was identified that formed a distinct pattern of complexes with nuclear proteins extracted from shear-stressed BAECs. This shear-stress-responsive element does not encode binding sites for any known transcription factor but does contain a core binding sequence (GAGACC), as defined by deletion mutation in gel-shift assays. Interestingly, this putative transcription factor binding site is also present in the promoters of certain other endothelial genes, including tissue plasminogen activator, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and transforming growth factor β1, that also are induced by shear stress. Thus, the expression of PDGF-B and other pathophysiologically relevant genes in vascular endothelium appears to be regulated, in part, by shear-stress-induced transcription factors interacting with a common promoter element.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 1993 National Academy of Sciences