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Nadia Boulanger et Camille Mauclair

Rosemary Yeoland
International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music
Vol. 45, No. 1 (June 2014), pp. 63-76
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23758167
Page Count: 14
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Nadia Boulanger et Camille Mauclair
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Abstract

Nadia Boulanger (1887-1979), mieux connue comme professeur de composition influent, a commencé sa carrière en tant que compositrice, mais elle a cessé de composer de la musique vers 1922 à l'âge de 35 ans. Cinq chansons basées sur les poèmes de Camille Mauclair (1872-1945) figurent parmi ces dernières compositions. Mauclair, écrivain, poète, essayiste, biographe et critique fait partie du milieu artistique de la fin-de-siècle. Le fait que Nadia Boulanger a choisi les poèmes de Camille Mauclair nous intéresse. Dans cet article, après une brève discussion biographique des deux artistes nous examinons, grâce à des lettres inédites de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France, le développement de leur amitié, une amitié qui a inspiré les dernières chansons de Nadia Boulanger. Ensuite, nous regardons ces cinq chansons, Doute, L'Échange, Au bord de la route, Le Couteau et Chanson pour mettre en lumière le style de composition utilisé par Boulanger et sa préférence de texte. Many of the French composers in fin-de-siècle France were drawn to composing music to accompany the works of the poets of their day, particularly the symbolist poets. One such composer was Nadia Boulanger (1887-1979) who is better known today as the influential music teacher for many of the leading composers and musicians of the twentieth century such as Aaron Copland, Dinu Lipatti and Philip Glass. Nadia Boulanger started her career as a composer but ceased composing music around 1922 at the age of 35 years. Born into a family of musicians, her predilection for song composition no doubt came from the influence of her father, Ernest (1815-1900), opera composer, orchestra conductor and teacher of singing at the Paris Conservatoire. Many reasons may have contributed to her decision to cease composing. Of interest to this author is that five songs, based on poems by Camille Mauclair (1872-1945) are amongst the last of Boulanger's compositions. Mauclair, writer, poet, essayist, biographer and literary, music and art critic was a member of the Belle-Époque Parisian artistic scene. His poetry, imbued with musicality, was mostly of a sombre ambiance, dealing with the vicissitudes of love. The fact that Nadia Boulanger chose his poems at the end of her composing career prompted the writing of this article. Unpublished letters deposited by Boulanger at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France indicate that she and Mauclair already knew each other at the time of Raoul Pugno's death in 1914. Pugno had been a very close friend and working associate of Nadia and she had asked Mauclair to write a eulogistic article on the musician. The subsequent unpublished letters sketchily reveal the development of their friendship which resulted in the composing of the songs Doute, L'Échange, Au bord de la route, Le Couteau and Chanson taken from Mauclair's collection of poems entitled Le Sang parle. In my article, I begin with a brief biographical discussion of the earlier years of both Boulanger and Mauclair prior to their friendship. I then examine the progress of their relationship according to the letters. Each of the above songs are then discussed in detail, establishing the mood Nadia Boulanger achieves musically by her choice of tonality, rhythm and expression. Mnoge francuske skladatelje s kraja prošloga stoljeća privuklo je skladanje prateće glazbe za pjesnička djela njihova vremena, osobito pjesnika simbolista. Jedna od njih bila je skladateljica Nadia Boulanger (1887-1979) koja je danas poznatija kao utjecajna učiteljica glazbe mnogih vodećih skladatelja i glazbenika dvadesetog stoljeća, kao što su Aaron Copland, Dinu Lipatti i Philip Glass. Nadia Boulanger započela je svoju karijeru kao skladateljica, ali je prestala skladati glazbu oko 1922. godine, u dobi od trideset i pet godina. Rođena je u obitelji glazbenika, tako da je njezina sklonost ka skladanju popijevke bez sumnje rezultat utjecaja njezina oca Ernesta (1815-1900), skladatelja operâ, dirigenta i učitelja pjevanja na pariškom konzervatoriju. Mnogo je razloga moglo pridonijeti njezinoj odluci o prestanku skladanja. Autoricu ovog članka zanima činjenica da je među posljednjim skladbama Nadie Boulanger pet popijevki nastalih na temelju pjesama Camillea Mauclaira (1872-1945). Mauclair — pisac, pjesnik, esejist, biograf te kritičar književnosti, glazbe i umjetnosti — bio je član pariške umjetničke scene Belle-Époque. Njegova muzikalnošću prožeta poezija bila je uglavnom tmurnog ozračja i bavila se promjenljivošću Ijubavi. Pisanje ovog članka potaknula je činjenica da je Nadia Boulanger na kraju svoje skladateljske karijere izabrala njegove pjesme. Neobjavljena pisma koje je N. Boulanger pohranila u francuskoj Nacionalnoj knjižnici ukazuju na to da su se ona i Mauclair već poznavali u vrijeme smrti Raoula Pugnoa 1914. godine. Pugno je bio vrlo blizak prijatelj i suradnik Nadie Boulanger te je ona zamolila Mauclairea da napiše pohvalni članak o glazbeniku. Spomenuta neobjavljena pisma nepotpuno otkrivaju razvoj njihova prijateljstva koje je rezultiralo skladanjem popijevki Doute, L'Échange, Au bord de la route, Le Couteau i Chanson, uzetih iz Mauclairove zbirke pjesama naslovljenom Le Sang parle. Članak započinje kratkom biografskom raspravom o ranijim godinama Boulanger i Mauclairea, prije njihovog prijateljstva. Zatim se ispituje napredovanje njihova odnosa u skladu s pismima. O svakoj se od navedenih popijevki zatim detaljno raspravlja te se utvrđuje raspoloženje koje Nadia Boulanger glazbeno postiže svojim odabirom tonaliteta, ritma i ekspresije.

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