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¿Cómo enseñar la notación lingüística y matemática? Un triple enfoque: epistémico, interdisciplinar y sociocultural

Sílvia LLACH CARLES and Ángel ALSINA PASTELLS
Revista Española de Pedagogía
Vol. 70, No. 252 (mayo-agosto 2012), pp. 321-336
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23766774
Page Count: 16
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
¿Cómo enseñar la notación lingüística y matemática? Un triple enfoque: epistémico, interdisciplinar y sociocultural
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Abstract

En este artículo se argumenta que la enseñanza de los sistemas externos de representación lingüísticos y matemáticos debe realizarse desde un enfoque epistémico, interdisciplinar y sociocultural que permita combinar sus funciones semiológica e instrumental. Desde este marco, se analizan algunos aspectos que deberían considerarse en el aula: el itinerario de aprendizaje, las prácticas informales y las prácticas formales. El análisis de estos factores aconseja: (i) partir de las posibilidades cognoscitivas de los alumnos y de su zona de desarrollo próximo para diseñar actividades flexibles y coherentes con el aprendizaje de los dos sistemas; (ii) continuar las prácticas informales para integrar la experiencia cotidiana en la tarea escolar; y, finalmente, (iii) implementar prácticas de aula centradas en una instrucción directa, formal, para establecer relaciones entre los signos y los conceptos representados; en una instrucción indirecta, procedente de campos afines que han demostrado su incidencia en el aprendizaje de los sistemas externos de representación; y en situaciones contextuales, significativas y motivadoras. In this paper we argue that the external systems of linguistic and mathematical representation teaching should be carried out using an epistemic, interdisciplinary ans sociocultural approach enabling the semiotic and instrumental functions of these languages to be combined. Within this framework, we analyze a number of aspects that ought to be considered in the classroom: the learning path, informal practices, and formal practices. The analysis of these factors suggests that the best way forward is (i) to start from the cognitive possibilities of the students and their zone of proximal development to design activities that are flexible and consistent with the learning of the two systems, (ii) to continue informal practices in order to integrate everyday experience and school work and, finally, (iii) to implement classroom practices that, in the case of direct, formal instruction, focus on the relationship between signs and concepts that are represented by them establishing abstract categories and their possible relationships and, in the case of indirect instruction, are based on related fields whose impact on learning external systems of representation has been demonstrated, and finally, are based in contextual situations that are meaningful and motivating.

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