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SOMACLONAL SELECTION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MUTANTS THROUGH RICE CELL CULTURE

T. Kinoshita and K. Mori
Cereal Research Communications
Vol. 19, No. 1/2, PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND FAO/IAEA RESEARCH COORDINATION MEETING ON Use of Induced Mutations in Connection with Haploids and Heterosis in Cereals Held at The Department of Genetics Silesian University Katowice, Poland, from 25 to 29 July, 1988 (1991), pp. 131-146
Published by: Akadémiai Kiadó
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23783745
Page Count: 16
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
SOMACLONAL SELECTION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MUTANTS THROUGH RICE CELL CULTURE
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Abstract

Somaclonal variation combined with in vitro selection is promising for breeding related to toxin and herbicide resistance. However, there is a problem that the selection at cellular level does not always contribute to the heritable trait in the regenerated plants. Therefore, we first studied the genetic nature of resistance to herbicides propanil, bentazon, benthiocarb and molinate, both at plant and cellular level. Two mutants induced by gamma irradiations which show a sensitivity to bentazon and propanil respectively, were used for the tolerance test by using seed calli together with the original variety, Norin 8. Seed calli induced from Norin 8 PS (susceptible to propanil) showed a strong growth inhibition during the culture on the medium containing 100 ppm of propanil, while the growth of calli derived from Norin 8 BS (susceptible to bentazon) exhibited also a strong inhibition at both 100 ppm plots containing propanil or bentazon. Thus, it is noted that the gene responsible for the bentazon sensitivity exerts its pleiotropic action to propanil only at the cellular level. Tolerance for two herbicides, benthiocarb and molinate, at cellular level was examined by using varieties Surjamukhi (susceptible) and Taichung 65 (tolerant). It was indicated that an inhibition of callus growth was more prominent in a sensitive variety, Surjamukhi. In somaclonal selection for resistance to herbicides, benthiocarb and bentazon, it was evident that the callus clones via the primary selection which survived on the medium containing the chemical at the highest concentration increased the tolerance on the secondary test medium with both the herbicides. In the case of salt tolerance successive selection screen callus clones survived even in the treatment with 3% NaCl. However, it is uncertain whether the increase of the tolerance is due to the genotype change or the metabolic adaptation of cultured cells. Effects of gamma radiation on anther culture was examined using the variety 'Kitaake'. The callus formation from the irradiated anthers were reduced due to the increase of gamma ray doses. Decrease of green plants regeneration and increase of albino plants compensated each other in the irradiated materials. We are aiming to enhance the frequency of somaclonal variations useful for agronomic traits by gamma radiation.

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