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Parental Energy Expenditure During Brood Rearing in the Great Tit (Parus major) in Relation to Body Mass, Temperature, Food Availability and Clutch Size

J. M. Tinbergen and M. W. Dietz
Functional Ecology
Vol. 8, No. 5 (Oct., 1994), pp. 563-572
DOI: 10.2307/2389916
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2389916
Page Count: 10
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Parental Energy Expenditure During Brood Rearing in the Great Tit (Parus major) in Relation to Body Mass, Temperature, Food Availability and Clutch Size
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Abstract

1. Quantification of the energetic needs of reproducing animals provides a basis for understanding patterns in reproduction. The doubly labelled water technique enables this to be carried out under natural conditions. 2. Daily energy expenditure of 32 female Great Tits (Parus major) tending nestlings 11-12 days old (DEE$_\operatorname{par}$) and energy expenditure at night of five females was measured using the doubly labelled water technique. 3. Average DEE$_\operatorname{par}$ was 95.1 kJ (24h)-1 (1.10 W) and close to most predictions based on interspecific allometric relationships. Night metabolism was estimated to be 0.68 W. 4. Individual variation in DEE$_\operatorname{par}$ could be explained by variation in body mass (+), ambient temperature (-), clutch size (+) and food availability (-) but not by female tarsus length, age, brood size or nestling mass. The significant factors together accounted for the differences found between years and broods and explained 64% of the variation. Possible causal pathways are discussed. 5. The DEE$_\operatorname{par}$ in Great Tits was related to body mass with an exponent of 1.99; significantly steeper than the interspecific exponent of 0.67-0.75 reported in the literature. Analysis of intraspecific variation in DEE$_\operatorname{par}$ for 10 species tending young, revealed variable trends with body mass.

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