You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:


Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Some Aspects of Plant Geography of the Northern Hemisphere During the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary

Jack A. Wolfe
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
Vol. 62, No. 2 (1975), pp. 264-279
DOI: 10.2307/2395198
Stable URL:
Page Count: 16
  • Download PDF
  • Add to My Lists
  • Cite this Item
Some Aspects of Plant Geography of the Northern Hemisphere During the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.


Palynological data emphasize the presence of two distinctive provinces during the Late Cretaceous, one including eastern North America and Europe and a second including the major part of Asia and western North America. The distinction between these two provinces became increasingly blurred during the Paleogene. During the Eocene, the ram forests of both Europe and western North America shared numerous genera, both extinct and extant. The great majority of the latter and most of the closest extant relatives of the former now occur in the Indomalayan region. It is thus clear that much of the present Indomalayan flora represents a relict of a once widespread Northern Hemisphere tropical (s.l.) flora, one that has largely (but not entirely) been eliminated from the New World. Among the possible New World survivors of this boreotropical flora are some of the dry Caribbean genera, which could have been derived from lineages of the dry tropical vegetation of the Gulf Coast Eocene; only a handful of present Neotropical lowland rain forest genera appear to be boreotropical relicts.

Notes and References

This item contains 58 references.

  • 2
    Chaney (1959)
Literature Cited
  • AMOR, J. M. 1955.La depresión Ceretana Espanola y sus vegetales fósiles. Mem. Real Acad. Ci. Exact. Madrid 18.
  • ANDREANSKY, N.1959. Die Flora der Sarmatischen Stufe in Ungarn. Akadenlia Kiado, Budapest. 360 pp.
  • AXELROD, D. I.1958. Evolution of the Madro-Tertiary C(eoflora. Bot. Rev.24: 433-509.
  • —1966. The Eocene Copper Basin flora of northeastern Nevada. Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci.59: 1-125.
  • — & H. P. BAILEY. 1969. Paleotemperature analysis of Tertiary floras. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.6: 163-195.
  • BERRY, E. W.1914. The Upper Cretaceous and Eocene floras of South Carolina and Georgia. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap.84: 1-200.
  • —1930. Revision of the lower Eocene Wilcox flora of the Southeastern States. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap.156: 1-196, 50 pis.
  • BUESEKOM, C. F. VAN. 1971. Revision of Meliosma (Sabiaceae), section Lorenzanea excepted, living and fossil, geography and phylogeny. Blumea19: 355-529.
  • CANDOLLE, A. DE.1874. Constitution dans le regne vegetal de groupes physiologiques applicables a la geographic botanique ancienne et moderne. Arch Sci. Phys. Nat. Nouv. Pér.50: 5-42.
  • CHANDLER, M. E. J.1964. The lower Tertiary floras of southern England. IV. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London. 151 pp. + 4 pis.
  • CHANEY, R. W.1940. Tertiary forests and continental history. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer.51: 469-488.
  • —1959. Miocene floras of the Columbia Plateau, Part I. Composition and interpreta- tion. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash.617: 1-134.
  • — C. C. CHUANG. 1968. An oak-laurel forest in the Miocene of Taiwan (Part I). Geol. Soc. China11: 3-18.
  • — E. I. SANBORN. 1933. The Goshen flora of west-central Oregon. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash.439: 1-103, 40 pis.
  • DIELS, L.1910. Menispermaceae. In A. Engler (editor), Das Pflanzenreich IV, 94: 1-135.
  • DILCHER, D. L.1973. Revision of the Eocene flora of southeastern North America. Palaeo- botanist20: 7-18.
  • — & G. E. DOLPH. 1970. Fossil leaves of Dendropanax from Eocene sediments of south- eastern North America. Amer. Jour. Bot.57: 153-160.
  • DOYLE, J. A.1969. Cretaceous angiosperm pollen of the Atlantic Coastal Plain and its evolutionary significance. Jour. Arnold Arbor.50: 1-35.
  • EVERNDEN, J. F. & G. T. JAMES. 1964. Potassium-argon dates and the Tertiary floras of North America. Amer. Jour. Sci.262: 945-974.
  • FUCHS, H. P.1967. Pollen morphology of the family Bombacaceae. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol. 3: 119-132.
  • GERMERAAD, J. H., C. A. HOPPING & J. MULLER. 1968. Palynology of Tertiary sediments from tropical areas. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol.6: 189-348.
  • GÓCZÁN, F., J. J. GROOT, W. KRUTZSCH & B. PACLTOVA'. 1967. Die Gattungen des "Stemma Normapolles Pflug 1953b" (Angiospermae). Paläontol. Abh., Abt. B, Paläobot.2: 429-539, 19 pis.
  • GRAHAM, A.1973. History of the arborescent temperate element in the northern Latin American biota. Pp. 301-314, in A. Graham (editor), Vegetation and Vegetational History of Northern Latin America. Elsevier Sci. Publ. Co., Amsterdam.
  • GRUBOV, V. L. & A. A. FEDEROV. 1964. Flora and vegetation. In V. T. Zaychikov (editor), The Physical Geography of China. Thought Publ. House, Moscow [English translation 1965 available from U.S. Dept. Commerce, JPRS, p. 290-377.]
  • KANIS, A.1967. A revision of the Ochnaceae of the Indo-Pacific area. Blumea16: 1-82.
  • LAKHANPAL, R. N.1970. Tertiary floras of India and their bearing on the historical geology of the region. Taxon19: 675-695.
  • LANGENHEIM, J. H., B. L. HACKNER & A. BARTLETT. 1967. Mangrove pollen at the depositional site of Oligo-Miocene amber from Chiapas, Mexico. Bot. Mus. Leafl.21: 289-324.
  • LEOPOLD, E. B. & H. D. MAcGINITIE. 1972. Development and affinities of Tertiary floras in the Rocky Mountains. Pp. 147-200, in A. Graham (editor), Floristics and Paleofloristics of Asia and Eastern North America. Elsevier Publ. Co., Amsterdam.
  • LI, H. L.1963. Woody Flora of Taiwan. Livingston Publ. Co. and Morris Arboretum, Narbeth, Pennsylvania. 974 pp.
  • MacGinitie, H. D.1941. A middle Eocene flora from the central Sierra Nevada. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash.534: 1-178, 47 pis.
  • —1962. The Kilgore flora. Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci.35: 67-158.
  • McKenna, M. C.1975. Fossil mammals and Early Eocene North Atlantic land continuity. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.62: 335-353.
  • MULLER, J.1966. Montane pollen from the Tertiary of northwestern Borneo. Blumea14: 231-235.
  • —1968. Palynology of the Pedawan and Plateau Sandstone Formations (Cretaceous- Eocene) in Sarawak, Malaysia. Micropaleontology14: 1-37.
  • —1970. Palynological evidence on early differentiation of angiosperms. Biol. Rev.45: 417-450.
  • RASKY, K.1956. Fossil plants from the upper Eocene of the Mount Martinovics, Budapest. Földt. Közl.86: 295-298, pis. 42-43.
  • RAVEN, P. H. & D. I. AXELROD. 1972. Plate tectonics and Australasian paleobiogeograplly. Science176: 1379-1386.
  • REID, M. E. & M. E. J. CHANDLER. 1933. The London Clay Flora. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London. 561 pp. + 33 pis.
  • SCHORN, H. E. 1966. Revision of the fossil species of Mahonia from North America. Master's thesis, Univ. California, Berkeley. 150 pp.
  • SCOTT, R. A.1954. Fossil fruits and seeds from the Eocene Clarno formation of Oregon. Palaeontographica, Abt. B Paläophytol.96: 66-97, pis. 15-16.
  • —1956. Evolution of some endocarpal features in the tribe Tinosporeae (Meni- spermaceae) Evolution10: 74-81.
  • STEENIS, C. G. G. J. VAN. 1962. The land-bridge theory in botany. Blumea11: 235-372.
  • TAKHTAJAN, A.1969. Flowering Plants, Origin and Dispersal. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D. C. 310 pp.
  • TANAI, T.1972. Tertiary history of vegetation in Japan. Pp. 235-255, in A. Graham (editor), Floristics and Paleofloristics of Asia and Eastern North America. Elsevier Publ. Co. Amsterdam.
  • TRAVERSE, A.1955. Pollen analysis of the Brandon lignite of Vermont. U. S. Bur. Mines, Rep. Investig. 5151. 107 pp.
  • TSCHUDY, B. D.1971. Two new fossil pollen genera from upper Campanian (Cretaceous) rocks of Montana. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap.750-B: 53-61.
  • WANG, CHI-WU.1961. The forests of China. Harvard Univ., Maria Moors Cabot Found., Publ. 5. 313 pp.
  • WEBER, R.1972. Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la taxonomía de las hojas fósiles de las dicotiledóneas. I Congr. Latinoamericano de Botanica Memorias, pp. 135-151.
  • WOLFE, J. A.1964. Miocene floras from Fingerrock Wash, southwestern Nevada. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap.454-N: 1-36, 12 pis.
  • —. 1969a. Paleogene floras from the Gulf of Alaska region. U. S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Report. 114 pp., 6 pls.
  • —1969b. Neogene floristic and vegetational history of the Pacific Northwest. Madroño 20: 83-110.
  • —1971. Tertiary climatic fluctuations and methods of analysis of Tertiary floras. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.9: 27-57.
  • —1972. An interpretation of Alaskan Tertiary floras. Pp. 201-233, in A. Graham (editor), Floristics and Paleofloristics of Asia and Eastern North America. Elsevier Publ. Co., Amsterdam.
  • —1973. Fossil forms of Amentiferae. Brittonia25: 334-355.
  • — D. M. HOPKINS. 1967. Climatic changes recorded by Tertiary land floras in northwestern North America. Pp. 67-76, in K. Hatai (editor), Tertiary Correlation and Climatic Changes in the Pacific. Symposium 25. Pacific Sci. Congr., 11th, Tokyo, Aug.- Sept. 1966.
  • — & T. TANAI. In press. The middle Miocene Seldovia Point flora from the Kenai Group, Alaska. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap.
  • — J. A. DOYLE & V. M. PAGE. 1975. The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: fossil evidence. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.62: (in press).