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Seed Morphology in North American Campanulaceae

Stanwyn G. Shetler and Nancy R. Morin
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
Vol. 73, No. 4 (1986), pp. 653-688
DOI: 10.2307/2399199
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2399199
Page Count: 36
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Seed Morphology in North American Campanulaceae
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Abstract

Campanulaceae (excluding Lobeliaceae) in North America comprise four genera and 35 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs. Generic and specific circumscriptions have been treated variously, and studies of seeds have been few and limited. In this study, seeds of all but one of the native North American species and of selected Eurasian putative relatives were examined with the light and scanning electron microscope. Characteristics of the seeds and their surface cells are described and compared. The seed-coat morphology was found to be relatively uniform, but there are recognizable generic patterns and a number of distinctive individual species. Seeds of Campanula americana, C. divaricata, and the other eastern species of Campanula are each distinctive and do not show the relative uniformity seen within Githopsis, Triodanis, Heterocodon, and the western species of Campanula. Seeds of the recently rediscovered C. robinsiae and of the wide-ranging C. aparinoides are highly distinctive and would appear to set each of these species apart within the genus. However in Triodanis, T. texana stands apart. Seeds of Campanula reverchonii resemble those of Triodanis coloradoensis more than those of other campanulas. Brief speculation on the adaptive significance of seed-coat sculpturing and ornamentation is given.

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