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Systematics of the Amazon Lilies, Eucharis and Caliphruria (Amaryllidaceae)

Alan W. Meerow
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
Vol. 76, No. 1 (1989), pp. 136-220
DOI: 10.2307/2399347
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2399347
Page Count: 85
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Systematics of the Amazon Lilies, Eucharis and Caliphruria (Amaryllidaceae)
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Abstract

Eucharis and Caliphruria are closely related, neotropical genera of petiolate-leaved, white-flowered Amaryllidaceae found in the understory of primary tropical rain forest. Together with the Peruvian endemic Urceolina, Eucharis and Caliphruria form a monophyletic group within "infrafamily Pancratioidinae" on the basis of leaf and seed morphology and ecological specialization. Seventeen species and two natural hybrids within two subgenera are recognized in Eucharis. Eucharis, marked by its crateriform or campanulate flowers, curved perianth tube, pigmented androecium usually developed into a staminal cup, and unicellular stigmatic papillae, is distributed from Guatemala to Bolivia, chiefly in the western Amazon basin and adjacent lower slopes of the eastern Andes. Subgenus Heterocharis represents three relict species and two natural hybrids with many ancestral characters of the genus. Caliphruria (four species, three of which are endemic to Colombia) has funnelform flowers, straight perianth tube, reduced staminal connation, and multicellular stigmatic papillae. Cladistic relationships support the monophyly of Eucharis, Caliphruria, and Urceolina as a unified group. The most parsimonious cladograms suggest that Eucharis is paraphyletic if subg. Heterocharis is included. An alternative hypothesis of generic relationships is tested, and proves less parsimonious. Recognizing the close phenetic relationship of subg. Heterocharis to the rest of Eucharis, the high levels of homoplasy within the cladogram, and ambiguity caused by missing character state data, a less parsimonious phylogeny is accepted as the basis for classification. Keys and descriptions are provided for all species of Eucharis and Caliphruria. Eucharis caucana, a novel hexaploid (2n = 138) species, is described from Colombia.

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