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Calydorea Herbert (Iridaceae–Tigridieae): Notes on this New World Genus and Reduction to Synonymy of Salpingostylis, Cardiostigma, Itysa, and Catila

Peter Goldblatt and James E. Henrich
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
Vol. 78, No. 2 (1991), pp. 504-511
DOI: 10.2307/2399577
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2399577
Page Count: 8
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Calydorea Herbert (Iridaceae–Tigridieae): Notes on this New World Genus and Reduction to Synonymy of Salpingostylis, Cardiostigma, Itysa, and Catila
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Abstract

Subequal tepals spreading from the base, free stamens, and short slender style branches with simple, obtuse to emarginate apices, the defining generic criteria for the southern South American Calydorea (Iridaceae–Tigridieae) (Herbert, 1843a) also characterize the Florida (U.S.A.) monotypic Salpingostylis (Small, 1931), the Mexican Cardiostigma (Baker, 1876), and the Venezuelan Itysa Ravenna (1986). Salpingostylis and Cardiostigma hardly differ from one another and are congeneric; they can be distinguished from Calydorea only by their secund flower, weakly eccentric style that divides near the apex of the anthers, and short style branches. Itysa also has secund flowers with spreading subequal tepals, free stamens and slender, simple style branches. It is unusual only in having the anthers coherent at their bases and a style that divides above the level of the anthers. Typical Calydorea has upright flowers and a central style that divides near the bases of the anthers into relatively longer style branches that twist weakly so that they come to lie between, rather than opposite, the style branches. We consider the differences between Calydorea, Cardiostigma, Salpingostylis, and Itysa too insignificant to merit generic segregation and unite them all under Calydorea. An unusual species of Calydorea, C. pallens, which has unequal inner and outer tepals and style branches that lie opposite the anthers, is strikingly similar to Catila amabilis (Ravenna, 1983), the latter having somewhat larger and more intensely colored flowers, the anthers of which clasp the style branches after anthesis. These two species belong in the same genus, and we recommend treating both as Calydorea in which we consider them to be relatively unspecialized. Other members of Tigridieae, notably Onira, Eleutherine, and Gelasine, that have free stamens and simple style branches are considered in relation to Calydorea. The phylogenetic position of the species or species clusters of Calydorea are analyzed cladistically and are discussed in relation to other taxa of Tigridieae and the basic character states of the tribe and its sister taxon Mariceae.

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