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Diversity Patterns Among Early Gastropods: Contrasting Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Descriptions

Peter J. Wagner
Paleobiology
Vol. 21, No. 4 (Autumn, 1995), pp. 410-439
Published by: Paleontological Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2401214
Page Count: 30
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Diversity Patterns Among Early Gastropods: Contrasting Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Descriptions
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Abstract

Paleobiologists have used taxonomic data for several types of diversity studies. Some systematists have charged that this practice obfuscates actual historical patterns of clades because many traditionally defined higher taxa are not monophyletic. Some have questioned whether ranked taxa ever represent comparable units, even when monophyletic. This study contrasts diversity patterns implied by phylogenetic estimates with those implied by ranked taxa. Early Paleozoic gastropods are useful as a test case because their generic taxonomy does not reflect the phylogenetic systematic philosophy, and fewer than one third of the genera represent monophyletic clades. Phylogenetic diversity is described in two ways: (1) numbers of lineages (i.e., observed plus phylogenetically implied "ghost lineages"), and (2) numbers of monophyla (i.e., clades whose sister taxa are other clades rather than species). "Monophyla" as tallied here are monophyletic relative to their contemporaries and older clades; however, they can be paraphyletic relative to "future" monophyla. Phylogenetic diversity is tallied with both maximum and minimum "ghost lineage" interpolations in order to reflect different possible speciation patterns and timings of speciation. Phylogenetic diversity as implied by a stricter cladistic criterion (i.e., taxa that are monophyletic relative to their contemporaries, older taxa and younger taxa) is discussed also. First differences between substage-to-substage standing diversities reveal significant congruence between generic data and both types of phylogenetic data. Taxonomic and phylogenetic data imply a major extinction event at the end of the Ordovician, although the phylogenetic data suggest greater extinction levels than do the taxonomic data. Both data sets also suggest diversity-dependent diversification reminiscent of logistic growth, which is the pattern predicted if one or a few major ecologic factors were constraining the diversification of gastropods. However, diversity described by strict Hennigian taxa is not highly congruent with diversity as described by either lineages or monophyla. Comparing subclade dynamics requires extensive redefinition of traditional orders, but lineages, monophyla and genera all suggest that the two major subclades had different logistic diversification patterns, with one ("murchisonioids") having a higher K than the other ("euomphaloids"). The concern that phylogenetic and taxonomic data might imply very different evolutionary histories is not borne out by gastropods, despite the nonphylogenetic nature of their traditional taxonomy.

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