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Observations on the Behaviour of Tsetse Flies (Glossina morsitans orientalis Vanderplank and G. pallidipes Austen) During an Attempt to Concentrate Breeding Around Cattle
G. J. W. Dean, J. Paget and F. Wilson
Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 6, No. 1 (Apr., 1969), pp. 13-26
Published by: British Ecological Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2401298
Page Count: 14
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Tsetse flies, Female animals, Oxen, Breeding, Vegetation, Humidity, Climate models, Species, Biological rhythms, Food supply
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Investigations into diurnal activity and seasonal distribution of Glossina morsitans and G. pallidipes, with or without the presence of cattle as a permanent food supply, were carried out in the Zambezi Valley, Rhodesia during 1965-67. Tsetse flies landing on one of three oxen tethered close together were caught, marked and released. Records of captures and meteorological conditions were kept for each half-hour period between 05.00 and 18.30 hours. Results from weekly sampling in four different vegetation communities indicated that flies were evenly distributed throughout the bush between January and August, while riverine-mopane generally contained larger numbers of both species during the hot dry months. More male than female G. morsitans were caught off the oxen, but female G. pallidipes were more abundant than the males. The sex ratio of both species emerging from pupae was near equality. No other difference between the vegetation communities could be detected except that there appeared to be a higher percentage of female flies in the riverine-mopane than in the other communities during August-October. G. morsitans was not active below 13-14⚬ C and G. pallidipes below 16⚬ C, and first captures of both species appeared to be conditioned to prevailing minimum daily temperatures. Activity was not detected before dawn or after dusk. The pattern of diurnal activity varied from season to season, and between the two species except from September to November. Trials involving a grid of eleven tethered oxen, and a 5-ac paddock containing a herd of fifteen animals, showed that a permanent food supply neither concentrated tsetse flies, nor influenced seasonal fluctuations in the numbers.
Journal of Applied Ecology © 1969 British Ecological Society