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The Evolution of a Pattern of Sound Production Associated with Courtship in the Characid Fish, Glandulocauda inequalis

Keith Nelson
Evolution
Vol. 18, No. 4 (Dec., 1964), pp. 526-540
DOI: 10.2307/2406207
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2406207
Page Count: 15
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The Evolution of a Pattern of Sound Production Associated with Courtship in the Characid Fish, Glandulocauda inequalis
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Abstract

1. In the male characid fish, Glandulocauda inequalis, a pattern of sound production associated with periodic air-gulping was found to be associated with courtship. The air taken in by the male at each gulp appeared to be used up in the production of the sound. 2. The antecedents of air-gulping were found in the glandulocaudine habit of nipping at the water surface, a putative feeding act. In the male glandulocaudine, Corynopoma riisei, nipping surface is positively correlated with the frequency of courtship sequences. 3. Acts of nipping surface in Corynopoma occurred randomly in time in the absence of complicating factors. On the other hand, air-gulping in the male Glandulocauda was periodic in its occurrence. Its patterning was superimposed on a courtship sequence in which bouts of different activities ended independently of when they began. The periodic pattern of air-gulping in the male Glandulocauda may have evolved from the random pattern of nipping surface as a result of the need to periodically renew the air supply used for sound production during courtship. 4. The sound produced by the male Glandulocauda consists of long trains of pulses, each covering a broad band of relatively high frequencies. 5. Air-gulping and nipping surface in Glandulocauda and the closely related Coelurichthys tenuis have no demonstrable respiratory function.

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