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Journal Article

Interactions Between Major Genes and Polygenes in the Determination of the Mimetic Patterns of Papilio dardanus

C. A. Clarke and P. M. Sheppard
Evolution
Vol. 17, No. 4 (Dec., 1963), pp. 404-413
DOI: 10.2307/2407091
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2407091
Page Count: 10
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Abstract

1. In the butterfly Papilio dardanus racial crosses have been carried out between some of the mimetic forms found on the African mainland and the malelike non-mimetic race meriones from Madagascar. F~2, F2, and backcross hybrids were obtained. 2. Great variability was found in the F~1 and greater still in the F2 hybrids compared with that in the parent races. This indicates that each race has a coadapted gene complex which insures a low degree of variability in the phenotypic expression of the major genes, and that this is markedly disturbed in these race crosses. 3. There was marked infertility of the F2 parents, and the data suggest that meriones merits designation as a subspecies. 4. In the backcrosses to the main African stock there was great variability in the homozygous mimetic forms, the mimicry often being very poor. This is attributed to the introduction of the Madagascar stock which, as it is non-mimetic, cannot have been adjusted to produce good mimicry in the presence of the appropriate major genes for the mimetic pattern. 5. These crosses supply more evidence that both the mimetic and non-mimetic patterns in Papilio dardanus are stablized by natural selection, which results in highly coadapted gene complexes whereby the major genes produce the most advantageous effects.

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