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Mixed Mating Systems in Hawaiian Bidens (Asteraceae)

M. Sun and F. R. Ganders
Evolution
Vol. 42, No. 3 (May, 1988), pp. 516-527
DOI: 10.2307/2409036
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2409036
Page Count: 12
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Mixed Mating Systems in Hawaiian Bidens (Asteraceae)
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Abstract

Floral features related to the breeding system were studied for 11 species of Hawaiian Bidens. Protandry and male sterility promote outcrossing, while self-compatibility and geitonogamy contribute to inbreeding. The combination of these floral mechanisms results in a mixed mating system in all species studied. Outcrossing rates of 15 populations of these species ranged from 0.43 to 0.88, averaging 0.65. Apparent selfing rates of females ranged from 0 to 0.25 in seven gynodioecious populations surveyed, suggesting that there is variation in the level of biparental inbreeding among populations. The presence of females increased the level of outcrossing by an average of 9% in gynodioecious populations. This study indicates that the efficiency of gynodioecy as an outcrossing mechanism largely depends on the current outcrossing rate of hermaphrodites, the frequency of females, and the extent of genetic substructuring in populations. On average, autogamy contributed 4%, geitonogamy contributed 24%, and consanguineous mating contributed 15% to the realized selfing rate (43%) in the hermaphrodites of these species.

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