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Evolution of Obligate Siblicide in Boobies. 2: Food Limitation and Parent-Offspring Conflict
David J. Anderson
Vol. 44, No. 8 (Dec., 1990), pp. 2069-2082
Published by: Society for the Study of Evolution
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2409616
Page Count: 14
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Proximate limitation on parental food delivery has long been invoked to explain the evolution of single-chick broods of pelagic seabirds such as masked boobies (Sula dactylatra). A second possible proximate limit on brood size is siblicide driven by genetic parent-offspring conflict (POC) over brood size, if siblicidal offspring can reduce brood size to one even if the parents' optimal brood size is greater than one. I tested these two hypotheses by experimentally suppressing obligate siblicide in masked booby broods and comparing breeding parameters of these broods with unmanipulated single-chick control broods. Per capita mortality rate of experimental nestlings was higher than that of controls, but this deficit was more than made up by larger brood size. Parents of experimental broods brought more food to offspring, had higher fledging success, and apparently incurred no additional major short-term cost of reproduction, relative to parents of control broods, thus refuting the food limitation hypothesis. Estimates of inclusive fitness of chicks in experimental broods were higher than were those of control nestlings, a result inconsistent with the POC hypothesis that the siblicidal offspring's optimal brood size is one while the parents' optimum is greater than one. This discrepency between natural brood size and apparent brood size optima might be resolved in several ways: experimental artifacts may give misleading estimates of optimal brood size; experimental and control offspring may have different reproductive values at the time of fledging; nestling masked boobies may face a special frequency-dependent case of POC in which the high risk of sharing a nest with a siblicidal sibling makes invasion of other behavioral genotypes difficult even when offspring and parent inclusive fitnesses are higher from a nonsiblicidal brood of two than from a brood of one.
Evolution © 1990 Society for the Study of Evolution