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Genetic and Environmental Variation in Floral Traits Affecting Outcrossing Rate in Clarkia tembloriensis (Onagraceae)
Timothy P. Holtsford and Norman C. Ellstrand
Vol. 46, No. 1 (Feb., 1992), pp. 216-225
Published by: Society for the Study of Evolution
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2409816
Page Count: 10
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Clarkia tembloriensis exhibits a wide range of variation among its natural populations in outcrossing rate and in separation of male and female function in space (anther-stigma separation or herkogamy) and in time (protandry). Here we show that outcrossing rate is highly correlated with protandry and anther-stigma separation. Both genetic and environmental variation contribute to inter- and intrapopulation variation in protandry and anther-stigma separation. Interpopulation differentiation for protandry and anther-stigma separation was found to be polygenic. Genetic variation for protandry and anther-stigma separation within populations was demonstrated by a significant among-family variance in two populations with contrasting breeding systems. Environmental effects on the expression of mating system traits were manifested in two ways. First, significant variation among lathhouse benches suggests that small-scale environmental heterogeneity may affect the development of floral traits. Second, protandry was shortened under hot summer conditions. Hence, hotter and drier habitats, typical of the more self-pollinating populations of C. tembloriensis, can promote self-pollination purely through environmental effects.
Evolution © 1992 Society for the Study of Evolution