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A Sex Difference in the Propensity to Enter Direct/Diapause Development: A Result of Selection for Protandry

Christer Wiklund, Per-Olof Wickman and Soren Nylin
Evolution
Vol. 46, No. 2 (Apr., 1992), pp. 519-528
DOI: 10.2307/2409868
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2409868
Page Count: 10
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A Sex Difference in the Propensity to Enter Direct/Diapause Development: A Result of Selection for Protandry
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Abstract

In monandrous mating systems with discrete nonoverlapping generations males should maximize the expected number of matings by starting to emerge before females. This is known as protandry. Moreover, Evolutionarily Stable Strategies (ESS) models show that the male emergence curve should be abruptly truncated before female emergence has ceased. In temperate areas where many insects have partial second generations, we accordingly predict that males should enter diapause development at an earlier date than should females, as a result of late-emerging males being penalized in terms of fewer mating opportunities. The decision to diapause or to develop directly is usually mediated by response to environmental stimuli of which day length is the most important. Hence we predict that the mechanism by which males enter diapause at an earlier date than females will be that of the male reaction norm for diapause development being shifted towards longer day lengths when compared to that of females. As a result of the greater tendency of males to enter diapause development, partial second generations that develop directly should be female biased. As a corollary, first generations should be male biased because some males of the first generation are from the previous year. The prediction that males should enter diapause development earlier in the season, i.e., at longer day lengths, as compared to females was corroborated by rearing Pieris napi under a variety of critical day length regimes producing mixed broods of directly developing and diapausing individuals, and by outdoor rearings of cohorts of larvae of P napi and P. rapae initiated throughout the season. The prediction that partial second generations should be female biased was corroborated by laboratory rearings at constant temperature of P napi (Pieridae), Polygonia c-album (Nymphalidae), and Pararge aegeria (Satyridae) under critical day length conditions, producing female-biased sex ratio under direct, and male-biased sex ratio under diapause development.

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