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Local Adaptation and Agents of Selection in a Mobile Insect
Susan Mopper, Michael Beck, Daniel Simberloff and Peter Stiling
Vol. 49, No. 5 (Oct., 1995), pp. 810-815
Published by: Society for the Study of Evolution
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410404
Page Count: 6
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The deme-formation hypothesis states that selection can produce adaptive genetic variation within and among phytophagous insect populations. We conducted three field experiments and tested this prediction by transferring eggs and measuring performance of a mobile leafmining insect, Stilbosis quadricustatella. In Experiment 1, we compared the rate of mine initiation of leafminers transferred to natal and novel sites. In Experiment 2, we compared mine-initiation rate of leafminers transferred to natal and novel host-plant species. In Experiment 3, we compared the mine-initiation rate, mine-completion rate, and sources of mortality of miners transferred to neighboring natal and novel Quercus geminata trees. In the first, second, and third experiments, leafminer larvae initiated significantly more mines at the natal site, on the natal plant species, and on the natal Q. geminata tree, evidence for adaptive differentiation. Furthermore, plant-mediated mortality was significantly lower among miners transferred to natal Q. geminata trees. This result supports a key assumption of the deme-formation hypothesis: insects adapt to the defensive phenotypes of individual trees. However, natural-enemy mortality was significantly higher among miners transferred to natal trees, essentially reversing the plant effect. Therefore, rates of successful mine completion were similar on natal (19%) and novel (17%) trees. This experiment suggests that host plants and natural enemies may represent opposing forces of selection. Leafminers adapted to individual trees may realize a selective advantage only when natural-enemy densities are low.
Evolution © 1995 Society for the Study of Evolution