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Phylogenetic Analysis of Breeding Site Use and α-Amanitin Tolerance Within the Drosophila quinaria Species Group
Greg S. Spicer and John Jaenike
Vol. 50, No. 6 (Dec., 1996), pp. 2328-2337
Published by: Society for the Study of Evolution
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410701
Page Count: 10
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The Drosophila quinaria group is unusual within the genus in that it comprises both mycophagous and nonmycophagous species. DNA sequence data from three regions of the mitochondrial genome were used to infer relationships among four mycophagous species and three that breed on decaying water plants. Phylogenetic analysis of these species show that breeding in mushrooms and tolerance of high levels of α-amanitin were the ancestral states within the group. Thus, breeding in decaying water plants and intolerance of α-amanitin are derived conditions. We also found that the D. quinaria species group does not comprise separate mycophagous and nonmycophagous clades, but rather that (1) the shift from mushrooms to decaying plants occurred on at least two occasions; or (2) mycophagy reevolved within a lineage that had previously shifted to breeding on plants. The correlation between mycophagy and α-amanitin tolerance is perfect across the species we have examined, indicating that there is no detectable time lag between an ecological shift to a new breeding site and correlated changes in biochemical adaptation. The genetic distance between the mycophagous D. recens and the nonmycophagous D. quinaria indicates that these species split only about 1 M.Y.B.P. In terms of α amanitin tolerance, D. recens and D. quinaria are typical of other ecologically similar species within the group. Thus, evolutionary changes in α-amanitin tolerance can evidently occur on the order of about 1 million yr. Our data also indicate that, in comparison to other groups of Drosophila, the quinaria species group may be undergoing an adaptive radiation.
Evolution © 1996 Society for the Study of Evolution