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Severe Inbreeding Depression and Rapid Fitness Rebound in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Satyridae)

Ilik J. Saccheri, Paul M. Brakefield and Richard A. Nichols
Evolution
Vol. 50, No. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 2000-2013
DOI: 10.2307/2410758
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410758
Page Count: 14
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Severe Inbreeding Depression and Rapid Fitness Rebound in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Satyridae)
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Abstract

We established inbred laboratory lines of the satyrid Bicyclus anynana with one, three and 10 pairs of butterflies, which were subsequently allowed to increase freely to a maximum size of 300 butterflies. Minimally inbred control lines were established with 300 randomly selected virgin butterflies of equal sex ratio. We measured fecundity, egg weight, egg hatching, adult emergence, adult size, and the proportion of crippled adults in generations F2, F3, F5, and F7 (the latter two for the one pair bottleneck lines only). The most striking result was an unexpectedly large decrease in egg hatching with increase in inbreeding (25% per 10% increase in inbreeding). Such a level of inbreeding depression has not been reported previously for any insect. The distribution of egg hatching rate for individual clutches within inbred lines was markedly skewed, with a large fraction of clutches producing no eggs at all. This is interpreted as a relatively lower ratio of detrimental to lethal (or sterile) mutation loads than is found in Drosophila, the only insects for which mutation loads have been well characterized. Possible explanations for this severe inbreeding depression include a relatively high rate of mutation to recessive alleles with substantial damaging effects and infrequent episodes of inbreeding in nature. In the experiments, average egg hatching rate recovered rapidly between F2 and F7 in three of the six one-pair lines. We discuss the implications of these results for survival of populations through extreme bottlenecks in nature and in captivity

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