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Evolution of Gynodioecy and Maintenance of Females: The Role of Inbreeding Depression, Outcrossing Rates, and Resource Allocation in Schiedea adamantis (Caryophyllaceae)
Ann K. Sakai, Stephen G. Weller, Mei-Ling Chen, Shian-Yean Chou and Chirichan Tasanont
Vol. 51, No. 3 (Jun., 1997), pp. 724-736
Published by: Society for the Study of Evolution
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2411149
Page Count: 13
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Levels of inbreeding depression, outcrossing rates, and phenotypic patterns of resource allocation were studied to examine their relative importance in the maintenance of high numbers of females in gynodioecious Schiedea adamantis (Caryophyllaceae), an endemic Hawaiian shrub found in a single population on Diamond Head Crater, Oahu. In studies of inbreeding depression in two greenhouse environments, families of hermaphrodites exhibited significant inbreeding depression (δ = 0.60), based on a multiplicative fitness function using seeds per capsule, germination, survival, and the inflorescence biomass of progeny. Differences between inbred and outcrossed progeny were smallest at the early stage of seeds per capsule and more pronounced at the later stages of survival and inflorescence production. These results are consistent with inbreeding depression caused by many mutations of small effect. Using allozyme analyses, the inbreeding coefficient of adult plants in the field was not significantly different from zero, implying that δ in nature may be equal to one. The single locus estimate of the outcrossing rate for hermaphrodites was 0.50 based on progeny that survived to flowering; corrected for the disproportionate loss before flowering of progeny from selfing, the adjusted outcrossing rate at the zygote stage was 0.32, suggesting that considerable selfing occurs in hermaphrodites. Females were totally outcrossed. When females and hermaphrodites were compared for reproductive output in the field, females produced over twice as many seeds per plant as hermaphrodites, primarily because females had far more capsules per inflorescence than hermaphrodites. Females had greater mass per seed than hermaphrodites in the field, either because of greater provisioning or reduced inbreeding depression. There was no significant differential mortality with respect to sex over a seven year period. The higher number of seeds per plant of females, combined with substantial inbreeding depression and relatively high selfing rates for hermaphrodites, are probably responsible for the maintenance of females in this population. The predicted frequency of females based on data for seed production, the adjusted selfing rate, and inbreeding depression is 42%, remarkably close to the observed frequency of 39%. High levels of inbreeding depression suggest that considerable quantitative genetic variation is present for traits affecting fitness in this population, despite low allozyme variability and a presumed founder effect.
Evolution © 1997 Society for the Study of Evolution