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Experimental Evolution of Accelerated Development in Drosophila. 1. Developmental Speed and Larval Survival
Adam K. Chippindale, Julie A. Alipaz, Hsiao-Wei Chen and Michael R. Rose
Vol. 51, No. 5 (Oct., 1997), pp. 1536-1551
Published by: Society for the Study of Evolution
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2411206
Page Count: 16
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Developmental time is a trait of great relevance to fitness in all organisms. In holometabolous species that occupy ephemeral habitat, like Drosophila melanogaster, the impact of developmental time upon fitness is further exaggerated. We explored the trade-offs surrounding developmental time by selecting 10 independent populations from two distantly related selection treatments (CB1-5 and CO1-5) for faster development. After 125 generations, the resulting accelerated populations (ACB1-5 and ACO1-5) displayed net selection responses for development time of -33.4 hours (or 15%) for ACB and -38.6 hours (or 17%) for ACO. Since most of the change in egg-to-adult developmental time was accounted for by changes in larval duration, the 'accelerated' larvae were estimated to develop 25-30% faster than their control/ancestor populations. The responses of ACB and ACO lines were remarkably parallel, despite being founded from populations evolved independently for more than 300 generations. On average, these 'A' populations developed from egg to adult in less than eight days and produced fertile eggs less than 24 hours after emerging. Accelerated populations showed no change in larval feeding rate, but a reduction in pupation height, the latter being a trait relating to larval energetic expenditure in wandering prior to pupation. This experiment demonstrates the existence of a negative evolutionary correlation between preadult developmental time and viability, as accelerated populations experienced a severe cost in preadult survivorship. In the final assay generation, viability of accelerated treatments had declined by more than 10%, on average. A diallel cross demonstrated that the loss of viability in the ACO lines was not due to inbreeding depression. These results suggest the existence of a rapid development syndrome, in which the fitness benefits of fast development are balanced by fitness costs resulting from reduced preadult survivorship, marginal larval storage of metabolites, and reduced adult size.
Evolution © 1997 Society for the Study of Evolution