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Effects of Postglacial Range Expansion on Allozyme and Quantitative Genetic Variation of the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii
Peter Armbruster, William E. Bradshaw and Christina M. Holzapfel
Vol. 52, No. 6 (Dec., 1998), pp. 1697-1704
Published by: Society for the Study of Evolution
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2411342
Page Count: 8
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We determined allozyme variability of 34 populations of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, from Florida (30⚬N) to northern Manitoba (54⚬N) and compared allozyme variability with the additive genetic variance for preadult development time and photoperiodic response determined previously for six populations over a similar range (30-50⚬N). Phylogenetic analysis of allozymes shows a well-defined split between Gulf Coast and lowland North Carolina populations, similar to previously observed phylogeographic patterns in a wide variety of taxa. A deeper split in the phylogeny of W. smithii coincides with the location of the maximum extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Furthermore, both average heterozygosity and patterns of isolation-by-distance decline in populations north of the former glacial border. It is likely that northern populations are the result of a range expansion that occurred subsequent to the late-Wisconsin retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and that these populations have not yet reached a drift-migration equilibrium. The northern decline in allozyme heterozygosity contrasts sharply with the northern increase in additive genetic variance of development time and photoperiodic response found in previous studies. These previous studies also showed that the genetic divergence of populations has involved stochastic variation in the contribution of dominance and epistasis to the genetic architecture underlying demographic traits, including preadult development time, and photoperiodic response. When taken together, the present and prior studies identify the genetic processes underlying the lack of concordance between geographic patterns of allozyme and quantitative genetic variation in natural populations of W. smithii. In the presence of nonadditive genetic variation, isolation and drift can result in opposite patterns of genetic variation for structural genes and quantitative traits.
Evolution © 1998 Society for the Study of Evolution