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Microbial communities associated with the root system of wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) are good reservoirs of bacteria with antagonistic potential against Verticillium dahliae

Sergio Aranda, Miguel Montes-Borrego, Rafael M. Jiménez-Díaz and Blanca B. Landa
Plant and Soil
Vol. 343, No. 1/2 (June 2011), pp. 329-345
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/24130304
Page Count: 17
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Abstract

Wild olive trees, namely oleaster, are considered the ancestor of cultivated olive and a unexplored source of genetic variability that might contain important traits of agronomic and biotechnological interest. The longevity and genetic diversity of oleasters may have favoured selection of specific and well adapted rhizosphere microbial populations that can constitute unique reservoirs of microbial antagonists of Verticillium dahliae, the main soilborne fungal pathogen of olive worldwide. The objective of this present study was to determine the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and endosphere of oleaster from 11 havens in Cádiz and Córdoba provinces of Andalusia, southern Spain. To carry out the study we used a multiphasic approach. First, the occurrence and diversity of rhizosphere bacteria was monitored by a cultivation-independent-approach, using fluorescent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (FT-RFLP) analyses of amplified 16S rDNA sequences. FT-RFLP patterns revealed a high heterogeneity in the composition of the sampled rhizosphere bacterial communities and suggested the existence of plant genotype-site-specific communities, with each oleaster haven being a unique reservoir of bacterial diversity. Secondly, to investigate the antagonistic potential of these root-associated bacterial populations, a total of 675 bacterial isolates obtained from oleaster rhizosphere and endosphere were screened by dual testing for inhibition of in vitro growth of the highly virulent, olive defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae. Out of 675 tested bacterial isolates, 94 (14%) showed a strong antagonistic activity against a defoliating V. dahliae pathotype. Of the antagonistic bacteria, a slightly lower proportion (12.9% of total bacteria) were inhabitant of the oleaster rhizosphere compared to that in the endosphere (16.5%). The biotechnological potential of those isolates was assessed by in vitro production of different hydrolytic enzymes, indole-1.3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and antimicrobial compounds. Overall, most of bacterial antagonists (58.5 to 78.3%) showed proteolytic, lipolytic, and chitinolytic activity, and produced IAA and siderophores. Finally, analysis of the 16S rDNA gene sequence indicated that most of the 94 bacterial antagonists belong to genera Bacillus (56.4%), Pseudomonas (27.7%), and Paenibacillus (7.4%). Overall, the rhizosphere and endosphere of wild olives were proved as a good reservoir of bacteria antagonists against V. dahliae. Several of those bacteria showing high and broad antagonism potential may therefore be considered for further analyses as promising biocontrol agents against V. dahliae in olive.

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