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Phylogenetic Study of the African Members of Cynanchum (Apocynaceae- Asclepiadoideae)

Sigrid Liede
Systematic Botany
Vol. 22, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1997), pp. 347-372
DOI: 10.2307/2419462
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2419462
Page Count: 26
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Phylogenetic Study of the African Members of Cynanchum (Apocynaceae- Asclepiadoideae)
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Abstract

Based on morphological characters a phylogenetic analysis of 97 African and Madagascan Cynanchum species is conducted. Of these, 93 are members of sect. Cynanchum and their relationships are explored using sect. Rhodostegiella, sect. Roulinia, and Pentarrhinum as outgroups. Stable clades of two to five taxa are identified, and their relationships to the outgroups and to the remaining four African Cynanchum species are explored using Tylophora as outgroup. All analyses are performed with all characters considered as unordered and under the assumption that some characters are ordered. Monophyly of the leafless succulent taxa is tested by excluding characters directly related to succulence. The Madagascan taxa as a whole are not monophyletic. The small Madagascan succulent genus Folotsia should probably be included in Cynanchum. Three African species are excluded from sect. Cynanchum and transferred to the small African genus Pentarrhinum as P. balense, P. gonoloboides, and P. somaliense. The position of C. ledermannii, of which only incomplete material is available, cannot be resolved at present.

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