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The Life Cycle of the Frog Bladder Fluke, Gorgoderina attenuata Stafford, 1902 (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae)
John S. Rankin, Jr.
The American Midland Naturalist
Vol. 21, No. 2 (Mar., 1939), pp. 476-488
Published by: The University of Notre Dame
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2420550
Page Count: 13
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Cysts, Bladder, Cercariae, Tadpoles, Miracidia, Testes, Epidermal cells, Transcriptional regulatory elements, Frogs, Insect larvae
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The life cycle of Gorgoderina attenuata Stafford, 1902, is described and figured. Adult flukes live in the bladder of various species of Rana and in Triturus v. viridescens. Miracidia hatch in the water, are swept through the incurent syphon of Sphaerium occidentale, and penetrate the gills to develop into mother sporocysts. A single generation of daughter sporocysts give rise to large cystocercous cercariae which are liberated into the water. Tadpoles pick up these cercariae along with algae, organic debris, etc. Cercariae penetrate the intestinal wall of the tadpole and form cysts throughout the body cavity, particularly around the heart and liver. Excystment occurs below the stomach of the definitive host when the tadpole is eaten. Developmental stages occur throughout the intestine and in the ureters and kidneys of the final host. This passage of part of the life cycle in the host's kidneys is believed to be normal. Metacercariae have nine testes; immature individuals show the gradual fusion to two as found in the adult worm. Such a condition indicates the close relationship to Gorgodera, a bladder fluke with nine testes in the adult condition. A discussion of the literature and infection experiments is included. The significance of the life cycle as a means of establishing relationships is also discussed.
The American Midland Naturalist © 1939 The University of Notre Dame