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Okinawa's Dry Typhoons

Jack C. Elliott and Yoshima Nino
The American Midland Naturalist
Vol. 63, No. 1 (Jan., 1960), pp. 211-222
DOI: 10.2307/2422941
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2422941
Page Count: 12
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Okinawa's Dry Typhoons
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Abstract

"Dry" typhoons on Okinawa have a deterrent and upsetting effect on the life cycles of its vegetation. Heavy salt depositions from spray blown from surrounding salt waters serve to: 1) destroy tender growing points, retarding growth; 2) cause considerable defoliation, thus upsetting normal food metabolism processes; 3) set-back formation and development of reproductive processes, reducing supplies of fruits and seeds; and 4) produce an added aspect of asymmetrical growth-form and dwarfness to coastal vegetation. High wind velocities cause damaging effects by: 1) bole and limb breakage; 2) windthrow; 3) wind-whip and limb-rub to fruits; and, 4) transpiration burn, which affects plant-water balances. Typhoons which are not "dry" create the same effects as regards damage from high velocities. In some instances salt burn occurs when the rains do not come in early stages of a typhoon. Typhoons accompanied by torrential rains increase erosion processes and most frequently result in damaging floods to paddy-land and other farming areas.

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