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Activity and Movement Patterns in a Population of Fowler's Toad, Bufo woodhousei fowleri

Raymond D. Clark
The American Midland Naturalist
Vol. 92, No. 2 (Oct., 1974), pp. 257-274
DOI: 10.2307/2424294
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2424294
Page Count: 18
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Activity and Movement Patterns in a Population of Fowler's Toad, Bufo woodhousei fowleri
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Abstract

A population of Fowler's toad (Bufo woodhousei fowleri) living on a golf course in New Haven, Connecticut, was studied for 3 summers by the capture-mark-recapture method; the population was dormant for 7 months of the year. The adults were strictly nocturnal, with a maximum activity shortly after sunset and a decrease until none were active at dawn. Individuals were not active every night and at no time was the entire population active. The two factors that accounted for 75% of the observed variability in the number of active toads were air temperature and season. Active toads generally sat on the warmest substrates (bare earth and sand), and a greater proportion of the active population chose these substrates when the temperature differential between substrates was greatest. Bare surfaces may have been chosen also because they allow the greater visibility necessary for the "sit-and-wait" style of predation of toads. The average distances between successive captures on home ranges were 21.8 m, 23.0 m and 32.3 m for 1969, 1970 and 1971, respectively. These values are larger than those found for Bufo spp. in structurally complex habitats, but similar to the value for toads found in a similarly open habitat. Each individual usually held the same home range each summer.

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