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Monitoring Butterfly Populations Using the Fourth of July Butterfly Count

Ann B. Swengel
The American Midland Naturalist
Vol. 124, No. 2 (Oct., 1990), pp. 395-406
DOI: 10.2307/2426190
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2426190
Page Count: 12
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Monitoring Butterfly Populations Using the Fourth of July Butterfly Count
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Abstract

The Xerces Society's Fourth of July Butterfly Count (4J), patterned after the popular Christmas Bird Count (CBC), is a nationwide, volunteer, annual 1-day census of butterflies and skippers at selected sites. The ornithological literature is reviewed, although not exhaustively, to summarize the methods for analyzing CBC data and to list the types of studies using these data. Applications of ornithologists' experiences with, concerns about, and uses for, CBC data to 4J studies are discussed, as well as issues, problems and opportunities specific to the Lepidoptera and 4J. This discussion is augmented by the results of a survey of midwestern 4J compilers. Two prototype studies using 4J data are offered: a nationwide analysis of monarch data 1979-1988 and an analysis restricted to the Midwest 1986-1989 on the fluctuations of immigrant species.

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